Guadalupe Victoria

Guadalupe Victoria was born on September 29, 1786 in the city of Tamazula, Nueva Vizcaya, currently Durango. He died on March 21, 1843 in Veracruz. His parents passed away when he was a child. He was baptized by his paternal uncle Agustín Fernández, who was officiating at that time as priest of Tamazula, who also died shortly after.

Personal information

  • When was he born:  09/29/1786
  • Where he was born:  Tamazula de Victoria, Mexico
  • When he died:  03/21/1843
  • Where he died:  Fortress of San Carlos de Perote, Perote, Mexico

Who was Guadalupe Victoria?

Baptized as José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix , he is better known as Guadalupe Victoria. He was a Mexican military and politician . It is one of the characters influential in the War of Independence of Mexico against the Spanish Empire. He was the first president of his country.

  • Biography of Guadalupe Victoria
  • Death
  • Physical description
  • What study
  • What did Guadalupe Victoria do
  • Presidency
  • Characteristics of his government
  • Parents
  • Wife
  • Offspring
  • Importance of Guadalupe Victoria
  • Acknowledgments
  • Phrases
  • Curiosities of Guadalupe Victoria

Biography of Guadalupe Victoria

Guadalupe Victoria was born on September 29, 1786 in the city of Tamazula, Nueva Vizcaya, currently Durango. He died on March 21, 1843 in Veracruz.

His parents passed away when he was a child. He was baptized by his paternal uncle Agustín Fernández, who was officiating at that time as priest of Tamazula , who also died shortly after.

He studied at the Durango Seminary and according to his biographers, not having enough financial resources to pay for his meals, he made copies of a Latin grammar text to sell to other students for two reales.

In 1807 he traveled to the City of Mexico , where he studied at the Colegio de San Ildefonso developing undergraduate studies in law canon and civil law. On April 24, 1811, presented its final exam and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws.

In the War of Independence he fought alongside Morelos . He was distinguished by his actions in the assault on Oaxaca , on November 25, 1812. Later he joined the troops under the command of Nicolás Bravo . Dedicated to controlling the passage of the bridge, he became famous for his cowards and successful attacks on enemy military convoys.

His nickname of Guadalupe Victoria was awarded to him by himself. He chose it because the Virgin of Guadalupe was the patron saint of the independent movement and because of the victory obtained.

He was promoted to colonel and was in charge of the Veracruz campaign . He developed a guerrilla warfare strategy with quick and lethal attacks. It was characterized by organizing an efficient government in the territories it dominated. Setting taxes and appointing judges.

He met defeat in Palmillas , in 1817, so he had to remain hidden without accepting the pardon offered by the viceroy . He was abandoned by his troops and was intensively searched. He survived hidden in the jungle, feeding on fruits and animals that he himself hunted. It was there that he developed the epilepsy that would lead to his death. It appeared sporadically in the surrounding towns, becoming a legend for the inhabitants of the surrounding areas.

He had the opportunity to reappear with the Plan of Iguala . Later, when the Republic was proclaimed, he joined General Santa Anna in the city of Veracruz to start the military actions that would lead to the overthrow of the empire.

He was elected president of Mexico on October 10, 1824, and handed over the presidency to his successor on March 31, 1829.

During his period of government, Guadalupe Victoria managed to surrender the Spanish garrison that had entrenched itself in the castle of San Juan de Ulúa , in front of Veracruz. His capitulation occurred on November 18, 1825.

He held various political positions before being elected president, was a deputy for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power .


Guadalupe Victoria died on March 21, 1843 in the Perote fort , in Veracruz. The cause of death being epileptic seizures according to the medical report of the time.

Physical description

His biographers describe him as a man of medium size, very dark complexion, thick eyebrows, dark sideburns, long and thick black hair. His face was gray and unappealing. 

What study

He studied at the Durango Seminary . Then he moved to Mexico City where he entered the Colegio de San Ildefonso to study jurisprudence .

What did Guadalupe Victoria do

After graduating, he did not practice his profession. He chose to dedicate himself body and soul to the armed struggle to fight against the Spanish empire . He excelled in several battles in cities such as Cuautla, Oaxaca, and Veracruz , thereby gaining an outstanding reputation as a great military strategist.

Later he became the first Mexican president.


In August 1824 the first federal elections were called. It was agreed that the two most voted would be elected as president and vice president. The results were announced on October 1, with Guadalupe Victoria winning by a majority of 17 states.

He was sworn in as president on October 10, 1824.

Characteristics of his government

  • His government went through a serious financial crisis caused by the economy seriously affected by the bloody war of independence and the embargo initiated by the Spanish empire.
  • He created the merchant navy of his country with which commercial activities with other European powers began with which diplomatic relations were also established.
  • He obtained loans from English banks that prevented the bankruptcy of his government and contributed to maintaining social peace which allowed him to peacefully conclude his mandate. Which was not repeated until 30 years later.
  • He abolished the slavery and created public finances, which would be the main milestones of his period. He also gave a strong boost to education and granted amnesty to political prisoners.


His father, Manuel Fernández de Victoria and his mother, María Alejandra Félix Niebla , died when he was just a few years old. Being an orphan from his childhood.


Guadalupe Victoria married María Antonieta Bretón y Velázquez in 1841.


He had three children: María Teresa de Jesús, Francisco de Paula and Miguel who adopted as his paternal surname the one his father chose: Victoria and as his mother’s name the one his father really had: Fernández.

Importance of Guadalupe Victoria

He is considered a national hero, Benemérito de la Patria , founder and forger of Mexico. By directing the destinies of his nation during the first years of its existence, he managed to adequately handle the difficult economic situation after the war of independence.


There are many monuments, statues, as well as various public buildings that bear his name. Regarding the tributes as eponymous , they highlight Ciudad Victoria, capital of the state of Tamaulipas ; Victoria de Durango, Guadalupe Victoria in the state of Puebla and the General Guadalupe Victoria International Airport .


  • «My sword goes as a pledge, I go for it».
  • “When the people jump over their barriers, almost no effort is powerful enough to stop it.”

Curiosities of Guadalupe Victoria

In the first 50 years of independent Mexico, only  Guadalupe Victoria was able to finish her term. All that happened to him up to the Benito Juárez period   were overthrown or resigned.

In 1838, his intervention as a diplomat was essential to avoid a war against France in the incident known as the ” War of the cakes .”

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