We usually hear the word globalization in many contexts and many people repeat it frequently as a concept to denote more trade , foreign companies and even the current economic crisis . We can say that globalization is the free movement of goods , services and people around the world in a transparent and integrated way .


What is globalization?

Globalization is a term that includes political , economic, social , cultural and technological aspects that make the world interconnected to achieve the expansion of the world trade flow .


We could also think that it is the result of the opening of the global economy and the concomitant increase in trade that arises between different nations. In other words, when countries that had their doors closed to trade and foreign investment open them, their economies go global , the result is a growing interconnection and integration of the world’s economies.

  • What is globalization?
  • features
  • Background
  • History of globalization
  • Explanation of the process
  • What is it for
  • Types
  • Causes
  • Consequences
  • Advantages of globalization
  • Disadvantages
  • Importance
  • Examples

What is globalization?

According to sociology , globalization consists of a continuous process that involves a series of interconnected changes in the economic , cultural , social and political spheres of society. Being a process, it implies the increasing integration of the aforementioned aspects between nations , regions , communities and even places that are apparently isolated.

In terms of economics , globalization refers to the expansion of capitalism to include all parts of the world within a globally integrated economic system . Culturally , when we speak of globalization, we refer to the global diffusion and integration of ideas , values , norms , behaviors and ways of life.

Politically it is the development of forms of government that operate on a global scale , whose policies and rules cooperative nations are expected to abide by. These three aspects mentioned are the main aspects of globalization and are driven by technological development , the global integration of communication technologies and the global distribution of the media .


The main characteristics that we can observe in globalization are the following:

  • It has free trade policies .
  • It promotes the mobilization of goods and human resources .
  • The companies make up multinational corporations .
  • The industrialization process is promoted .
  • There are more migratory flows .
  • It promotes a greater expansion of activities of an economic nature with the exchange of merchandise, goods and services .
  • There is an improvement in connectivity and telecommunications .
  • They are given new policies , treaties and connections commercial, cultural, technological and economic.


Its antecedents can be found before the contemporary era, probably during the time of colonization and the Spanish conquest . The main progress it had occurred between the 1940s and 1950s, mainly due to a series of economic factors , specifically through the Industrial Revolution that managed to accumulate capital between countries and improve the workforce with the different technological advances that emerged. .

The industrial revolution also produced an oversupply that, in turn, gave rise to liberalism or free trade as a solution to economic problems around the world. With free trade also came immigration to industrialized countries and protectionism emerged , leaving liberalism in the background.

Another important antecedent of globalization was the formation of political-economic blocs that emerged when the Second World War ended . One bloc was capitalist and the other communist . These blocks were separated by their ideologies , mainly in the economic sphere.

History of globalization

Several sociologists see globalization as a process that originated with the creation of the capitalist economy , which created links between distant regions of the world during the Middle Ages . It is believed that the capitalist economy that was based on growth and expansion gave rise to capitalism and US imperialism , creating global economic , political , cultural and social connections around the world.

Even in the middle of the twentieth century, the world economy was a compilation of national economies that compete and cooperate and trade was more international than global. However, from this moment on, the globalization process intensified and accelerated as international economic and political agreements were created to produce a global economy based on the free movement of money and corporations .

Explanation of the process

Globalization is a process that integrates the markets globally and for processing has had to create a series of economic blocs working under the logic of free trade , with the aim to reproduce the equity . The globalization process has implied the interconnection of markets worldwide for and in the social field, it has been necessary to reduce the distances between all countries so the development of communications is essential , an example of this is Internet use.

What is it for

Globalization is a process that serves to unite all countries around the world and to be able to count on more technological advances, in addition to providing a better economy and better trade to the peoples, making the country’s economy increase and improve.


There are several types of globalization among which we mention the following:

  • Economic globalization : it is the type of globalization that consists in the creation of a world market in which tariff barriers are eliminated so that in this way the free movement of capital can take place .
  • Social globalization: it  is the impact on the life and work of people, their families and society. This movement raises concerns that are related to the impact that globalization can have on different jobs and their working conditions , in addition to income and social protection.
  • Cultural globalization : it is related to cultural integration and practices and with this we refer to everything that is related to the diffusion and consumption of cultural products worldwide.
  • Technological globalization : it is the international standardization of the use of modern systems in the area of technology . We now know that information travels in seconds and that it also produces wealth.


The main causes of globalization are:

  • The new geopolitical restructuring of the world after the cold war.
  • The acceleration of the economic opening and of the exchanges of merchandise, goods and services.
  • The liberalization of capitals that make up financial centers and stock exchanges worldwide.
  • Changes in information and communication through advanced technologies.
  • The globalization as a result of capitalism.
  • The search for economic growth .
  • Capitalist interests .
  • To be able to generate development and growth in most nations


There are many consequences that arise from the globalization process, such as the segmentation , differentiation and marginalization of people, social groups , activities, regions and countries. The democratic states lose control of information flows and communication horizontally among citizens because of the emergence of the Internet .

The globalization of the crime organized, trafficking in drugs and weapons , the prostitution , money laundering and aggression are connected through the Internet and are a serious threat to the States. Emerging states lose power , autonomy , sovereignty and the ability to decide for themselves to find solutions to their problems.

Dehumanizing , elitist , centralist , discriminatory , marginalizing , impoverishing and social exclusion tendencies are beginning to emerge . There is speculation for profit and a super concentration of income and wealth in the hands of a few, making the rich increasingly rich and the poor increasingly poor.

They will degrade the conditions of work and the environment, increases the informal economy , criminal economy and speculative capital . The multinational companies increase their power and the weakening of popular organizations and trade unions is given in addition to an increase in migration social and urbanization .

Advantages of globalization

The main advantages of globalization are the following:

  • Free trade in goods and services worldwide.
  • Production costs are lowered .
  • There is greater business competitiveness and the products are of better quality.
  • Greater technological development that favors the levels and speed of production.
  • Greater offer of employment .
  • Greater cultural exchange thanks to the various communication channels.
  • Incentive for tourist activity .
  • Strengthening of human relationships .
  • Greater accessibility to trade and access information of national and international interest.


Among its disadvantages we can mention:

  • There is a lack of control over the markets and mainly over Multinational Companies.
  • There is an increase in the economic , social and territorial imbalances of the countries.
  • There is a concentration of wealth and an increase in inequality
  • Every time there are richer and poorer .
  • On some occasions, minimum labor standards are violated.
  • Increase in Consumerism .
  • Damage to the environment can occur .
  • Biological and cultural diversity is threatened .


The main importance of the globalization process is that thanks to it the borders that exist between countries fall and agreements are established that manage to unite the different parts of the world, from the economic and commercial point of view . It seeks to take into account the human being as a whole , regardless of where it is located and through the markets it seeks to maximize the benefits that industry and commerce can bring . Competition increases and the number of monopolies decreases that exist thus increasing the country’s economy.


Some examples of globalization are the following:

  • The treaties of free trade that exist between countries.
  • The series or movies that we watch on television in all countries, or on the Internet.
  • The use of new communications , such as cell phones.
  • The incorporation of women into the labor market , and the expansion of their rights worldwide.
  • The centers call for customer assistance work remotely.
  • Fast food businesses , which are seen in every city in the world.

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