The geosfera is the layer external land, rigid and formed of solid rock which is also known as crust . Without it, human beings could not live on the planet because there would be no solid ground on which they could inhabit. In the geosphere of the earth is where we can find rocks, minerals, molten rock, sand and mountains. These rocks can be of various types such as sedimentary , igneous and metamorphic rocks . The geosphere of the earth is related to the other layers of the earth, including the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. Within it are also the lithosphere and it is a layer that is in a constant state of movement.

What is the geosphere?

The geosphere is the solid part of the earth and the outermost layer, which is mostly located at the bottom of the ocean giving shape to the seabed and part giving shape to the islands and continents that are on earth.

  • Origin and formation
  • Characteristics of the geosphere
  • Layers
  • Composition
  • Dynamic
  • Natural phenomena in the geosphere
  • Importance

Origin and formation

The origin of the geosphere dates back more than 4.5 billion years. The earth had been formed by a large group of shocks, dust, rocks and gases and the layers had been separated by gravity and the cooling of the earth. Some scientists consider that the earth was created together with the solar system and that the earth initially arose by the union of particles after the Big Bang , these unions could have been by homogeneous or heterogeneous accretion. It is considered that, at the beginning, it was a ball of molten materials and that due to gravity, the densest materials sank forming the nucleus, and the lighter ones remained on the surface.

Characteristics of the geosphere

  • The lithosphere is the part of the geosphere that was created by a series of landforms .
  • The part of the geosphere made up of rocks , minerals and soil is known as the pedosphere.
  • Its interior is made up of solid earth .
  • It is in motion because it is the layer that contains the tectonic plates . These plates move and are responsible for causing different landforms to rise, earthquakes to occur, and volcanoes to erupt.
  • The liquid rock or rock melt which is below the surface of the earth is part of the geosphere.
  • It includes ocean floors , sand in deserts, rocks , mountains, and every piece of land or formation on the continents.
  • Sedimentary rock in the geosphere forms from erosion .


The layers of the geosphere are defined by their composition in the following layers:

  • Crust : It is the rocky layer located on the surface of the earth that is in contact with the atmosphere , hydrosphere and biosphere . It is divided into oceanic and continental crust . The oceanic crust forms the seabed and the continental crust forms the continents.
  • Mantle : It is a type of rock envelope which is rich in silica and is the intermediate layer. It is divided into upper mantle and intermediate layer and is in contact with the nucleus.
  • Core : It is made up of an alloy of iron and nickel , including minor amounts of oxygen, silicon and sulfur.

According to the physical properties, the geosphere is subdivided into:  lithosphere, asthenosphere , mesosphere , outer core or endosphere and inner core.


It is made up of rocks and minerals , from molten rock to heavy metals . The geosphere also includes the abiotic parts of soils and the skeletons of animals that can fossilize over time. Rock cycle processes such as metamorphism , melting and solidification , weathering, and erosion are responsible for the constant recycling of rocks on Earth.


For a long time, scientists have sought a way to describe the different endogenous processes or tectonic processes that have been responsible for building the different reliefs by forces inside the planet. The dynamics of the geosphere can be internal or external . The internal one involves the movements of plates , volcanic activity and deformations . External dynamics involve external geological processes such as erosion , sedimentation and weathering , and external geological agents , such as water and wind .

Natural phenomena in the geosphere

Different types of natural phenomena occur in the geosphere such as:

  • Volcanism or eruption of volcanoes
  • Earthquakes or earthquakes that are earth movements that can be destructive.
  • Erosion , sedimentation and weathering .
  • Earth deformations .


The Geosphere is very important for life on earth because it defines a large part of the environment in which we live, controls the distribution of minerals , rocks and soils and generates natural phenomena that, although they involve danger, are responsible for shaping the earth . The distribution of mountains, the position of the continents, the shape of the sea floor, and the location of major rivers and floodplains are largely products of processes that occur in the Geosphere. Distribution of mineral resources , such as oil, coal, metallic ores, and even sand and gravel, are critical to successeconomic of most nations .

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