To study everything that exists on Earth, different types of natural sciences have been created that study its structure, evolution and dynamics. One of them is geology , a science that is responsible for studying everything that is related to the composition , structure and history of the Planet, also including the analysis of natural resources and the processes that take place in it.


What is geology?

The geology is a science that studies the Earth from an internal and external view of all the different materials that compose it , its structures and processes that act on them which have led to the evolution of the planet.

  • What geology studies
  • History
  • What is it for
  • Branches
  • Basic concepts
  • Geology and its relationship with physics
  • Geology and its relationship with biology
  • Importance
  • Featured Geologists
  • Books on geology
  • Examples

What geology studies

Geology is responsible for carrying out studies on each and every one of the processes that occur on planet Earth which, little by little, have made it change and evolve. Study the methods that are presented related to the movements of the Earth, the materials that make it up and its history . It also carries out studies to know in detail all the different mechanisms that can occur in the internal part of the planet as well as in the superficial part.



The history of geology arises in ancient Greece during the 4th century. At this time the first important scientists emerged who observed the Earth discovering differences between rocks and minerals. In the 18th century, issues related to terrestrial minerals began to be given greater importance and the physical characteristics of the Earth began to be established. In the 19th century, it was possible to show that many rocks had been formed thanks to volcanic processes and sedimentation .

The fossils helped scientists to establish markers and thus it was possible to better understand all the changes that the Earth’s surface had presented over the years. At the beginning of the 20th century, Alfred Wegener established the theory of Continental Drift by establishing the term Pangea to refer to the continents.

The word geology was first used by Ulisse Aldovrandi , an Italian-born naturalist who mentioned that geology was a science that studied minerals and rocks . Little by little the term was being used more and more by important scientists and was finally established as a general term thanks to Jean-André Deluc and Horace de Saussure .

What is it for

Geology is a science that serves to gain more knowledge about the different types of rocks that exist on the planet as well as the processes that influence the Earth’s surface to change. It serves to help improve the management of natural resources and deposits important to humans. It is a science that is vital in the prevention of tragedies related to the processes that occur in the earth’s crust such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Thanks to her, it is possible to know the mysteries of the planet regarding its formation.


Geology has a wide variety of branches, the most important of which are the following:

  • Geochemistry : it is in charge of studying the different chemical processes that can shape the Earth, it studies matter and energy and the interaction between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere .
  • Oceanography : conducts studies on the movement and composition of the seas and waters as well as the energy that mobilizes them. An essential science to evaluate the infrastructure in oil production and to understand the biodiversity of the seas.
  • Paleontology : is the study of fossils to understand the way organisms lived in ancient times to better understand the history of planet Earth.
  • Sedimentology : his studies focus on the evaluation of marine deposits to study their physical properties and the way in which they were created in order to obtain different geological records.
  • Geomorphology : describes and explains the different landforms on Earth and also studies the mechanisms that act to produce changes in it.
  • Geochemistry : carry out analysis and research on the way in which the Earth is composed from a chemical point of view, studying the elements , their distribution and their links .
  • Geophysics : it analyzes the Earth but from a physical point of view in order to obtain information about its structure and history by means of physical quantitative methods, studies of gravity and electromagnetic fields.
  • Hydrogeology : studies the different types of water found underground to the surface, its origin, interaction with the soil, its state and its properties.
  • Seismology : science that is in charge of the study of earthquakes and earthquakes that occur on the planet, the waves that they generate and the impact they can cause in the world. It also includes studies on the activity of volcanoes , tsunamis and storm surges.
  • Volcanology : studies volcanoes and all their components including eruptions to try to predict when one of them will happen.

Basic concepts

There are actually many basic concepts used in geology, including, for example, physics, biology, chemistry, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, matter, energy, minerals, relief, and many more.

Geology in the world

  • Argentina : is responsible for describing the composition and the way in which the different regions that exist in the place were formed.
  • Mexico : studies all the natural and mineral wealth that the country has, mainly the gold and silver deposits but also the way in which the country has created its mountain systems, mountain ranges and other important structures.
  • Spain : in Spain geology is a highly regulated science as it is known to have an important impact on the safety and well-being of the inhabitants. It is related to road works, the economy and the continuous search for resources that can be used and managed properly.

Geology and its relationship with physics

Geology is a science that studies rocks, structures and activities as well as the movements of particles for example through erosion . To be able to analyze these data correctly, it is necessary to use physics to be able to adequately study the forces that drive them , compression and gravitational forces, which can also influence movement.

Geology and its relationship with biology

The geology and biology have a close relationship especially when it comes to the evolution of the internal structure and external of the planet, this because both sciences have a relation to time processes that can affect different processes of life living organisms . Their main relationship is then based on evolution and how organisms are affected when the surface of the earth or its waters change.


Geology is a very important science because thanks to it, important data can be obtained that help humans. Thanks to it, it is currently possible to know the way in which our planet works, it is possible to know the different geological , biological and physical processes that have influenced and that influence the appearance and extinction of new species. Using geology you can access relevant information about practically all the other sciences that study the earth.

Thanks to the information obtained through geology, it is possible to take better advantage of natural resources , energy sources , minerals , and it encourages the use of renewable energy . It can make better use of groundwater and even contributes to the construction of civil works to make them safer and more profitable.

Another important fact is that, through geology, it is possible to know and establish geological and natural risk management, so it is possible to know and understand how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are formed , in order to establish guidelines that help mitigate its side effects.

Featured Geologists

Some of the most important geologists are mentioned below:

  • Alfred Wegener
  • Christian Friedrich Ludwig
  • Francisco Anguita Virella
  • David Rabadà i Vives
  • Xavier Le Pichon
  • Dorothy Helen Rayner

Books on geology

Some geology books where you can get information are:

  • Principles of Geology
  • Earth Sciences, An Introduction to Physical Geology
  • The Earth in motion
  • Geological Engineering
  • Origins; how the history of the Earth determines the history of humanity.


Among its examples we can mention the study of the physics of the earth, the analysis of earthquakes and their seismic waves , studies on the magnetic field that the Earth has, analysis and research of minerals , rocks , oil .

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