Gender gap


Despite all the progress that has been made up to the 21st century, it is sad to know that nowadays, even in developed countries, movements for social inclusion, support for communities such as “LGBTI” and the eradication of systems where discrimination are still witnessed to the woman . One of the most relevant problems that are still experienced in the social part of nations is the gender gap , which little by little is being sought to eradicate completely.

What is the gender gap?

The gender gap, as its name implies, is the difference in benefits that exist between men and women . This is closely linked to societies with a large sexist population . The reality that is lived is that each day that passes, women receive less income than men receive, in addition in many places just because they are women, an invisible ceiling is placed which does not allow them to advance within the field in which they work.

  • Definition
  • Characteristics of the gender gap
  • Story
  • Types
  • How it is calculated
  • Measures to reduce the gender gap
  • Gender gap by country
  • Examples


The term gender gap comes from the English term “ gender gap ” which is defined as an analytical and empirical work that is created from the differences in relation to a variable taking the basis of comparison of men and women within the society.


This stands out for highlighting the differences in the main benefits that men receive and not women. Access to benefits, the rights that every human being should have, power and influence, salary payments and all the elements that strengthen their well-being and development are taken into account .

Characteristics of the gender gap

  • They occur in countries where machismo predominates .
  • Summits have been created to abolish preferences.
  • The countries with the highest fertility rates are those where mothers work and are mostly unsupported.
  • The gender gap considerably affects the psychological level of those who are disadvantaged
  • Although the gender gap is taken mainly due to inequality towards women, there are also other cases where it is the opposite, such as in primary schools where there is always a preference for girls over boys.


It is in the mid-  1980s that the term is used for the first time, by the American feminist Eleonor Smeal, who referred to the term in a political sphere , more specifically referring to the difference in the vote of a woman with respect to that of a man within state policies for that time.

This indicated that the vote would be a decisive change in the gender gap with respect to the election of the president at that time. 4 years after the date after the elections, she wrote the first book on the gender gap called : Why and How Women Will Elect the NextPresident (Harper & Row).


So far there are only two types of gender gaps:

Social gender gap

The one we are currently focusing on.

Digital gender gap

This is seen most of all in the large electronics companies, in the online work area , which consider that they do not have what is required to work in those places and global gaming competitions where very few female competitors are seen , since they believes they do not have the capacity to play.

How it is calculated

Various surveys are carried out on women and men with a specific variable, for example “ how much do you earn in an average salary ”, taking into account your position and working conditions.

After this, all the results are taken, tabulated and compared. The difference is taken from the inequalities that are found between men and women in this case by salary difference which must be demonstrated by means of the graphs.

Measures to reduce the gender gap

  • Establish plans and projects to support women experiencing singletons.
  • Create laws and amendments that ratify the same rights for women and men.
  • Find solutions in the labor field to eliminate gender favoritism.
  • Establish state bodies that seek to support and restore women as an important part of society.
  • Increase bonuses and wages paid to female workers.
  • Integrate within the government systems more female personnel who have important roles within the different ministries.

Gender gap by country

Currently the countries with the smallest gender gap are:

  • Iceland
  • Norway
  • Finland
  • Rwanda
  • Nicaragua
  • Slovenia
  • Ireland
  • New Zealand
  • Philippines

What this list shows is that despite the fact that there are countries with low income levels, they seek that these are equitable for both sexes. If we evaluate the global percentages of gender gap it would look something like this:

  • Western Europe with 75%.
  • North America with 72%.
  • East of Europe and Central Asia with 71%.
  • Latin America and the Caribbean islands with 70%.
  • East Asia and the Pacific with 68%.
  • Sub Saharan and Africa with 68%.
  • South Asia with 66%.
  • North Africa with 60%.

This shows that countries have shown no greater interest in improving this area, despite being an injustice. For their part, studies have shown that if these conditions are improved, GDP (gross domestic product) will increase by almost 50% for each country.


  • In Spain, the highest percentage of people with university degrees is women, with 59.6 thus exceeding men, however, this is not recognized in their salaries.
  • Spanish pensioners only receive around 598 euros while men receive around 972 euros.
  • The percentage of job desertion in Spain due to childcare in men is only 7.4% but in women it is 38.2%.

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