The fuels are those materials or substances after passing through a process of combustion , have the ability to release potential energy which is then transformed into energy which can be used in several ways. There are also several types of fuels, among which we find fuel oil , a liquid that comes from the distillation of oil .
Fuel oil is a type of liquid mixture that has a yellowish or light brown color that can be produced from crude oil through various refining processes .
- Fuel oil characteristics
- Types of fuel oil
- What is it for
- Environmental impact
- Cost per country
- Advantages of fuel oil
Fuel oil characteristics
Among the main characteristics that can be found in fuel oil, the following are mentioned:
- Fuel oil has an odor similar to kerosene .
- It is a substance that has a high power to be flammable .
- There are several types which can be differentiated thanks to their chemical additives and their uses .
- It has a high level of density and viscosity .
- It has little volatility , around 5 and 10%.
- They have a high level of toxicity .
- It can be found under different names such as diesel fuel, furnace oil, domestic heating oil, industrial heating oil, kerosene and marine fuel .
The history of fuel oil begins in 1847 with Samuel Keir , an American who devised a way to distill oil and turn it into a form of fuels for lamps. The invention of kerosene lamp around 1850 led to the creation of the first oil company in the US . In 1859 , Edwin L. Drake was in charge of drilling the first oil well in this country and then the Standard Oil Company was founded , thanks to Rockefeller. Little by little, the production of fuels oil was advancing worldwide, becoming one of the most important fuels.
Types of fuel oil
There are several types of fuels oil, six in total which are classified depending on your point of boiling , of the use that is going to give and composition , these are mentioned below:
- Fuel Oil No. 1: This type of fuel oil is very similar to kerosene and is produced immediately after gasoline burns.
- Fuel oil No. 2: this type of fuels is used mainly by diesel engines , whether in small vehicles or larger trucks. It is also used in industrial machinery .
- Fuel oil N ° 3 : it is a distilled oil that is used for those burners that need to use low viscosity fuels but it is hardly used.
- Fuel oil N ° 4 : this is a type of diesel that has a commercial use and is used in burner installations that are not equipped with preheaters. It is obtained from heavy diesel.
- Fuel oil N ° 5 : it is a type of oil used for industrial heating , it is of a residual type and requires preheating in order to correctly atomize the burners. It is also known by the name of Bunker B and is obtained from the cutting of heavy diesel fuels or it can also arise from the mixture of residual oil with oil to adjust its viscosity. It is known by the name of Special Fueloil de la Armada .
- Fuel oil No. 6: it is a residual oil that has a high viscosity and that also needs to be preheated . It results from the boiling of crude oil and can contain various types of impurities such as water and mineral soil.
Fuel oil is composed of a fairly complex and at the same time variable mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons, among which can be found alkanes , alkenes and cycloalkanes . It is also composed of aromatics which have relatively low percentages of sulfur , oxygen and nitrogen . The chemical composition of fuel oil can vary depending on the source it comes from, the refinery used to obtain it and the presence or absence of different types of additives or modifiers .
What is it for
Fuel oil is mainly used to burn in ovens , boilers , stoves and is also used in lanterns in order to generate heat. It is also widely used in construction machines or agricultural machinery , in commercial equipment such as generators, tractors and cranes.
It can also be used as a type of fuels for lamps or lighting. Many of them also serve to maintain heating in homes or industries and also participate in the production of steam for the production of electricity and marine propulsion . It also serves as a type of backup and emergency fuels ideal for use in industrial plants and power plants that use other forms of energy. Light fuels oil is also used for refueling ships .
In order to obtain fuels oil, it is necessary to carry out the distillation of the oil , either distillate or as a residue, in other words, it can be obtained from the residues that are obtained during the oil refining process and then be mixed with other fractions that come from catalytic cracking .
Fuel oil reserves are in the same place as oil reserves, since it is from these places where it can be extracted.
The use of this type of fuels has caused great concerns due to the impact on the environment that they can cause, including its ability to produce climatic changes that are caused due to the large amount of greenhouse gases that are expelled through the combustion of the product mainly when it is used in marine transport .
Cost per country
- Dominican Republic : here the price ranges between RD $ 140.01 gallon, down RD $ 1.70.
- United States : the price of fuels oil per gallon is around $ 1.49.
Advantages of fuel oil
Fuel oil has a number of practical advantages that make it a useful fuels:
- It is quite safe since it is not explosive and can only ignite when using a specific system.
- It has the ability to be safely stored and used in boilers and furnaces without any safety concerns.
- It is very economical , its use is likely to be cheaper than that of gas and electricity.
- It is very efficient since the tank does not need to be refilled as often as with other products.
- It is very light .
- It does not contain sulfur in its natural state so it is considered a clean fuels that also provides reliable performance in the most demanding conditions.
Some of its disadvantages are mentioned below:
- It is important to remember that this type of fuels comes from oil which is a non-renewable energy source . This means that we will probably run out of crude oil at some point.
- Burning oil produces carbon dioxide gas . It is a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change .
- Burning the oil required to obtain fuels oil can pollute the air .
- Most of the world’s oil has to be imported and is becoming more expensive as reserves shrink and imports increase.
Fuel oil is a type of fuels and for this reason it is an important part of modern sustainability serving mainly as a type of energy for the industrial sector , to maintain heating in homes and as a type of fuels for the different types of vehicles that exist, including airplanes , therefore it is essential for the transport of both people and goods worldwide.