Frontal lobe


The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that is responsible for controlling important cognitive abilities that humans have, such as emotional expression, problem solving, memory, language, judgment, and sexual behaviors. In essence, you can say that the frontal lobe is the control panel of our personality and our ability to communicate .


What is frontal lobe?

The frontal lobe is one of the most studied parts of the brain from a psychological , neurosychological and scientific point of view . It is the largest lobe of the brain and its functions are important for human life .


It is also the most common place for a brain injury to occur . Damage to the frontal lobe can create personality changes , limited facial expressions, and difficulty interpreting surroundings, such as an inability to properly assess risk and danger.

  • Frontal lobe characteristics
  • Frontal lobe location
  • Areas
  • Features
  • Frontal lobe injuries and diseases

Frontal lobe characteristics

The main characteristics of the frontal lobe are as follows:

  • The frontal lobe is the characteristic of the human body that differentiates us from other animals.
  • They allow us to have a wide variety of functions and capabilities .
  • It is the lobe with the largest surface area in the brain.
  • It is considered the most important lobe of the human body.
  • It is located in the anterior part of the brain.

Frontal lobe location

The frontal lobe is located in the front part of the brain, in the part that is located closest to the face. It is separated from the parietal lobe by means of Rolando’s fissure or central fissure, and separated from the temporal lobe by means of Silvio’s fissure or lateral fissure.

They take up about one – third of the cerebral cortex and are the largest size .


The frontal lobe areas are:

  • Motor cortex : it is the part of the frontal lobe related to the planning , execution and control of voluntary movements. In it, information about the environment and information processed in the brain is formed, which is then converted into action. It is divided into the primary motor cortex, the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area . In the primary cortex, the nerve impulses that activate specific muscles are given. Learning is aided in the premotor cortexfrom past experiences and plays a very important role in movements associated with controlling posture and proximal movements . In the supplementary motor area, it participates in the realization of precise movements , such as those that require the use of the fingers of the hands in a coordinated way.
  • Prefrontal cortex: in it originates the ability to repress impulses and to think in abstract ideas . It gives the imagination of possible future situations from our past and social norms . In it are the cognitive faculties and functions .
  • Broca’s area : It is related to the realization of concrete movements to be able to speak. In it signals are formulated that will go to the tongue, larynx and mouth.


The frontal lobes are closely related to the executive functions of the human body, such as cognition , decision – making , the correct use of memory, planning and the way in which we solve our problems.

It has the function of sharing the information we obtain from the environment in order to make decisions regarding what we do and helps us to make an action plan . Thanks to him, we can go from being passive to active human beings , responding to the specific objectives that we have.

It gives us the ability to think abstractly about things that are in our imagination, it helps us to correctly manage working memory and solve problems in real time. It allows us to project experiences that have happened in the past so that we can see them in the future.

It helps us to imagine different plans and strategies , thinking about the possible results and the consequences they may have. It then forms future scenes in the mind and helps us visualize our goals.

They allow us to develop mental and emotional states with others, which in turn directly influences the way we behave .

Frontal lobe injuries and diseases

The injuries or pathologies of the frontal lobe affect the motor , cognitive , emotional and behavioral processes of the human being. For this reason, the pathologies are varied, some of them are:

  • Motor disorders:  affect the primary motor and the premotor cortex, affecting the speed , execution and coordination of body movements. One of them is apraxia , in which the patient loses all ability to coordinate movements.
  • Aphasia : it is a problem of language where the patient loses verbal fluency , they speak in a very slow and poorly organized way. They have no initiative and it is hard for them to write.
  • Dysexecutive syndrome : it occurs when an injury occurs in the prefrontal area of the lobe , and has symptoms such as loss of cognitive ability , attention deficit and difficulty regulating emotions and behaviors .

When there is damage to the dorsolateral area , problems can arise to resolve conflicts, decrease in learning capacity , impairment of temporary memory and poor motor programming .

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