The freight or cargo refers to the movement all goods that use the transport land on a network given. The data are expressed in million ton-kilometers , which represents the transport of one ton over one kilometer. The components for road and rail are the two most used forms in this type of transport. In addition, it belongs to the service sector or tertiary sector , which is the sector of the economy that is responsible for activities that are related to non- producing servicesor transformers of goods.
Freight transport refers to the total movement of goods using land transport within a given network. These goods are of great size and for this reason are represented by tons .
- Characteristics of cargo transportation
- Types of cargo transportation
- Featured companies
- Examples of cargo transportation
Characteristics of cargo transportation
The main characteristics of cargo transportation are the following:
- Transport is an activity that belongs to the tertiary sector .
- Transport objects, materials, animals or people from one place to another.
- It uses transport networks to mobilize products.
- It has exhibited a great expansion in recent years due to industrialization and trade .
- It has a lower cost in the transport service.
- It has several elements to carry out its action, among them we can mention the infrastructure , the vehicle , the transport operators and the services that allow the activity to be carried out.
Throughout the centuries there have been many means of transporting goods. For many years, the products traveled to their destinations by means of wagons that were pulled by horses and other animals. This way of moving cargo was slow and often dangerous.
Then the wheels were invented that made transport by land easier and reduced the effects of friction that it produced. In the fifteenth century, the mines coal were equipped with rails through which men and horses were able to more easily drag the wagons.
Some time later, the introduction of the railway system occurred . Steam engines were invented in the 17th and 18th centuries, a design that was improved upon by James Watt . In 1802 , Murdock and Ricardo Trevithick further improved the steam engine. business owners began shipping products across the country faster and safer.
Products traveled to various cities on steamboats, and later cargo ships delivered goods to foreign countries. The invention of airplanes created another option for transporting goods to distant destinations as merchandise and business owners have always looked for better, faster and safer ways to ship their products.
Rail transport has led the sector with respect to its coverage until the middle of the last century. However, maritime transport has allowed the expansion of international trade. Sailing ships, galleys, caravels and frigates improved the dynamism of transporting more quantity of merchandise and finally, the steamship was the one that promoted maritime transport.
The air transport dates back to 1700 when the developed the balloon , were subsequently developed to be able to obtain what is known today as air freight, the plane .
Types of cargo transportation
The types of cargo transportation are:
- Passenger transport, freight transport: carry goods from one place to another and use logistics to plan the desired destinations.
- Urban or interurban transport : urban people make short and frequent trips while intercity trips are farther and less frequent .
- Public or private transport: public transport is in which passengers share the means of transport and is for the general public, for example, buses, trams, trains or ferries. Private transport allows the user to choose a route, select the departure time, it is faster and the most common of them is the car .
- School transport: it is the transport of students from homes to study centers.
There are many advantages of freight transport, below, we mention some of them.
- The services are complemented by the costs are reduced and the time of transfer are shorter.
- There is greater security in the loads that are transported.
- It gives more comfort to the passengers and there are more economic savings.
- Freight transports are very punctual delivering their loads.
- They give users convenience and help improve business relationships .
- Reduces administrative and logistics costs .
Some disadvantages of freight transport are:
- In some cases some of them may represent a greater expenditure of money.
- Accidents can occur mainly on the road.
- They depend on the capacity and weight they can carry with them.
- Some of them cannot take alternate routes .
- They use large amounts of energy in the form of fuel , which causes polluting gaseous emissions to be generated in the environment.
- Depending on the transport, it may take a long time for the loads to reach their destination.
It is important because it helps meet the needs of producers and consumers seeking resources and progress. All the companies that exist basically depend on freight transport to be able to get their products to the places where they will be distributed and generate income .
Some uses of cargo transportation are:
- Transportation of goods and materials from one place to another.
- Means of communication between people and places.
- They reduce the time it takes to ship a good from one place to another, or to transport a person from one destination to another.
- They allow the merchandise to be stored while it reaches its destination.
- They facilitate multimodal transport .
Among the most prominent companies that participate in freight transport we mention:
- SEUR GEOPOST
- PRIMAFRIO SL
- UNITED PARCEL
- TRANS SESE SL
- COMPAÑÍA LOGÍSTICA ACOTRAL SA
Examples of cargo transportation
Some examples of cargo transportation are as follows:
- Transportation of heavy loads.
- Air transport, be it plane, plane or helicopter .
- Medical and fun trips.
- Maritime transport such as ships, boats, launches and other types of vessels.
- Passenger transport.