Many relevant and important people have existed and lived in the history of Spain. One of these characters was Francisco Franco , a man who dedicated his life to a military career becoming a dictator . He was the man who was in charge of establishing a dictatorship with fascist airs which managed to survive until the day of his death and which, in one way or another, intervened in the modern history of Spain .
- When was he born: 12/04/1892
- Where he was born: Ferrol, Spain
- When he died: 11/20/1975
- Where he died: Madrid, Spain
Who was Francisco Franco?
Francisco Franco was a dictator and military man of Spanish origin who was in charge of giving the coup against the democratic government of the Second Republic in 1936, which produced shortly after the Civil War in Spain .
- What Francisco Franco did
- Biography of Francisco Franco
- Military career
- Civil war
- Dictatorship of Francisco Franco
- Physical characteristics
- Francisco Franco quotes
What Francisco Franco did
Francisco Franco did many positive and negative things during his tenure. He took charge and achieved great economic and social development in the country, mainly during the first years in which he established his dictatorship. It made it possible for important changes to take place that managed to improve and favor the transition towards a democracy without violence or fighting. Although it went against liberal democracy, it ended up giving up its power in the end.
However, he was a man who instituted repression to seek victory and did so through a civil war that lasted many years. He was and is still criticized for having maintained the war between the two Spains for almost 40 years, eliminating all air of freedom and promoting mistrust . Despite this, it improved the middle social classes and placed Spain as the ninth power in the world . It began the construction of all social security , improved unemployment levels and health insurance .
Biography of Francisco Franco
He was born in the city of Ferrol a 4 December of the year 1892 . His family belonged to the middle social class. Most of his personality traits came from his mother who instilled in him a series of values that identified him during his adult life.
As a young man he was quite reserved and even a little shy. When he was twelve years old he entered to study at a naval school and in 1907 he entered the Military Academy of the city of Toledo . In 1909 he was sent to Morocco and due to his participation in the African wars he was promoted in the Spanish military hierarchy . From soldier he became a general and finally became a lieutenant and captain general .
During 1975, Francisco Franco suffered from various heart problems including heart attacks, in addition, he suffered from numerous gastric complications that finally produced acute peritonitis , a disease that affected many of his vital organs. According to the story , he had a long period of agony before he died on 20 November 1975 due to a shock septic that ended his life.
His candle lasted approximately fifty hours in total and was veiled in the burning chapel. In his will he left an inheritance for his wife and daughter of 28.5 million pesetas, an amount that currently reaches 1.8 million euros . This will had been drawn up eight years in advance. In addition, he included within his inheritance several farms , real estate , accounts , companies and the stately place located in the municipality of Sada located in La Coruña , probably the most valuable of his inheritance. The cemetery where his remains rest is now in the hands of theNational Heritage and its crypt was built in 1969. The remains of his wife also rest in this place.
His military career began at the Toledo Military Academy , where he began his brilliant career. He rose through the field of militia very quickly and already in the year 1912 was lieutenant and later promoted to captain , colonel and brigadier general in 1926. Most of his career in the military made in Africa and managed to get a lot of decorations. He also participated in several military events in which he was only wounded once.
In 1920 he joined the Legion , a movement created by Millán Astray and with them he managed to participate in various acts of war and then be elevated to office, even occupying the place as head of the organization. After his active participation in Africa, he served in various positions until the Civil War began, it was here that he became director of the General Military Academy and commander of La Coruña , the Balearic Islands and head of the forces of Spain located in Morocco .
On July 18, 1936 , Francisco Franco participated in the uprising of the African army carrying out a coup which failed, as a result, the Spanish Civil War began . This is how the country was divided into two different camps, one the republican and the other the national or rebellious as it was also known and which was led by Francisco Franco . During the confrontations, both were filled with cruelty, there were many executions of civilians and soldiers who remained loyal to the government and there was a hunt for Republicans by the fascist groups of Francisco Franco.
Dictatorship of Francisco Franco
His dictatorial mandate began on April 1, 1939 . It was at that moment when he decided to establish his regime that he went from fascist totalitarianism to authoritarian dictatorship . During his government a type of economic policy was maintained that was based on autarky . The Generalissimo Franco , as he was known at the time, managed to achieve power within the government that had never before been achieved. Through his Law for the Reorganization of the State Administration, he managed to have in his hands all the governmental powers, including the executive and legislative branches . He even managed toCatholic Church gave him ideological, militant and belligerent justification.
He created the FET party , which acted as an instrument to better organize all the followers of his regime, to better control society and to maintain command. All source of authority came solely from him, gradually instituting a monarchy of a nominal type.
The ideology of Francisco Franco was one of the most hated and criticized aspects. He was a faithful follower of the ideals of Francoism , a completely dictatorial and totalitarian regime, so there was no democratic idea in his ideas. In his way of thinking, he was in charge of persecuting , torturing and murdering anyone who was against his ideals. It had at all times a totally anti-communist and traditionalist ideology including fascist methods .
According to information gathered by expert historians, his personality was funny. Francisco Franco was a man full of culture but at the same time very compulsive and intriguing . He didn’t mind lying if he thought it necessary, and he was also suspicious, selfish, and untrustworthy.
No record is found where an exact description of his physical characteristics is given, but many describe him as a thin man of medium height who used to wear a mustache . His white skin with little amount of hair, a pointed nose and prominent eyebrows .
His mother, María del Pilar Bahamonde Pardo and his father Nicolás Franco, who worked for a long time as a captain in the navy and as an officer in the colony.
He married Carmen Polo , a woman with whom he was married until the last of his days.
Francisco Franco only had one daughter with his wife, María del Carmen Franco Polo .
Francisco Franco was seen as a caudillo of Spanish origin who became one of the most important dictators in Spain, thus causing a greater impact on the history of the country. Many expert historians insist that, despite his authoritarian rule, he did many positive works that helped the country to move forward, and that thanks to him, national unity , greater prosperity , reconciliation and ultimately democracy were achieved .
Francisco Franco quotes
Some of his most recognized phrases by Francisco Franco were:
- The horror of disaster can never cloud your glory.
- Since I became a general, I was put on the path of great responsibilities for the future.
- There is talk of democracy. We, the Spaniards, have already known it. And it didn’t work for us.
- We were on the edge of the abyss, but we have taken a step forward.
- They have it all. Everything except reason.
- His full name was Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde.
- He was about to die when he was wounded in the belly in a battle at El-Biutz.
- He considered that he had been chosen by God to save Spain.
- He was known by the nickname “Cerillita” when he was a child due to his thinness.
- It prohibited the use of languages other than Spanish in the media, schools or businesses.