In the treatment of metals, metallurgy is the main technique by means of which they can be obtained and treated, as well as being in charge of studying the production of different alloys . It is a branch widely used by technology and science that has managed to bring great benefits to humanity. One of the most widely used types of metallurgy is known by the name of casting , which involves a process of heating and reduction in order to obtain a pure metal.


What is foundry?

The casting is itself the action of melt or melt metal materials and different elements in the solid state. It is a process that decreases and heats a certain material to later obtain a natural metal and then include it in a mold .

  • What does it consist of
  • History
  • What is foundry for
  • Foundry types
  • Necessary equipment
  • Materials
  • Explanation of the process
  • Advantages of foundry
  • Disadvantages
  • Importance

What does it consist of

The casting is a kind of process consisting of melting a metal to remove from the ore by a reaction chemistry of reduction of causing damage in the compounds. In order to do this, it is necessary to use different reducing substances that, when they respond to oxidized metallic materials, have the ability to change their shape . It is a process by means of which the material is melted and later placed inside a mold in which it will be that it takes its form and then so that it is used with the functionality that corresponds to it.



The history of foundry began thousands of years ago, in the Neolithic period , when humans began to explore gold and bronze . At the beginning, he hit the materials to be able to break them but little by little he understood that by means of heat he managed to melt them and then place them in molds and wait for them to solidify once they were cold. With the passage of time, the technique was advancing and was perfected from the III millennium BC in Egypt and Asia .

In the 3rd century, casting with molds using wax began to be used and the first to use this technique were the Greeks during the 6th century BC This technique was also improved by the Chinese with the invention of the blast furnace. In this way, many cultures began to use the technique and during the era of industrialization , the need to create new materials and improve manufacturing processes due to the great armed conflicts made the foundry take on even greater importance.

The first important advance in the field of modern metallurgy occurred after the Indians invented the smelting of steel , a time in which the puddle was created thanks to Stephen Cort in the year 1784 , a process that consisted of melting in the blast furnace by means of melt welding and with them they managed to obtain a mass of iron with a pasty and refined consistency. Subsequently, with the improvements of the furnace it was possible to eliminate the impurities that resulted from the smelting and today the process has been considerably improved, becoming an important part of manyindustrial processes today.

What is foundry for

Casting is a type of process that is used to melt and produce metal parts and is mainly applied in the automotive industry to create a series of mechanical parts such as gears, brake discs and engine blocks, among others.

Foundry types

Among the most important types of cast iron we find the following:

  • Casting gray: is known as cast iron or cast. It acquires a flake shape and gives iron a particular color, the ability to be tempered and a very good flowability for casting. This type of cast iron is more brittle and has less tensile strength.
  • Nodular foundation : cast iron is inoculated with materials such as magnesium and since carbon is in a spheroidal form, it produces a great tensile strength and greater toughness.
  • White Foundation : This type of casting is achieved when iron dash is rapidly cooled from when it is in a liquid state.
  • Malleable foundation : special types of iron are used which are subjected to rigid controls forming a microstructure in which most of the carbon is combined with cementite. Its cooling is very fast and results in a malleable cast iron.
  • Alloy foundation : this type of cast iron contains chromium, molybdenum , nickel or copper in some percentages in order to improve the mechanical properties of normal castings. With it you can create a species with different and better properties, with greater resistance to wear, heat and corrosion.

Necessary equipment

The main equipment that is needed to carry out the casting process is the model which can be made of plastic , wood or metal . This model will be in charge of describing the external representation that the piece will have, and it must also have some specific measures to be able to adequately comply with the casting process . This model should be lightly more large that the piece considering that it is subsequently shrink when cooled to room temperature . Small angles should be set on the surfaces of the modelso as not to destroy the molds while the extraction process is running and it must also contain feed conduits to be able to load the mold with the already molten metal .


Various materials can be cast mainly alloys containing iron, steel, bronze and brass.

Explanation of the process

The casting process is the means by which useful parts or objects can be produced using molten metal . Basically it consists of empty metal and molten within a container which has the shape of the part or object to be manufactured and then must wait for the equipment is hardened when cooled from naturally . The main steps to be followed are:

  • Design the different models as well as their internal parts.
  • Correct mold design .
  • Preparation of materials .
  • Placing the molten metal inside the mold.
  • Cooling process of the molds.
  • Removal of castings for subsequent cleaning.

Advantages of foundry

Among its main advantages are the following:

  • It is a process considered easier to machine .
  • Through casting, it is possible to manufacture pieces that have different sizes and different levels of complexity .
  • You don’t need ovens that are extremely large or expensive .
  • It has the ability to resist thermal shocks , corruption and also produces objects that have a very good resistance to wear .
  • Different types of molds can be used depending on the need and the use that the final object is going to have.


Some of its most significant disadvantages are the following:

  • Depending on the type of metal used , manufacturing costs can be quite high .
  • Some types of metals are more hermetic causing some defects such as cracking or the presence of iron parts that melt white.
  • During the casting process, temperatures , glue speed , alloys and time must be strictly controlled at all times.


The foundry industry is quite important to the world at large for a number of reasons. Perhaps the most important of these is because it is a means of support for other types of industries , for small businesses , for the economy as a whole , and for the growth of people who dedicate part of their time to protecting the environment . A lot of companies rely on casting, automotive , the construction , the aerospace industry , the oil industry, the mining , transportand even health .

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