Federal state


federal state is a system of government that is divided between the power of a larger central government and the underlying local or regional governments . In the United States, the powers of the federal government were established by the Constitution. Federal governments are those that work best in countries of large proportions and that have great diversity among their citizens, although there is still a common culture that is responsible for uniting them all. The federal state is then one of the divisions into which a federation is divided .


What is a federal state?

The federal state is a system of government in which power is divided between a government center and largest governments and their local , regional or state that are under the central government.

  • What is a federal state
  • Characteristics of the federal state
  • Decentralized federal state
  • Difference between unitary and federal state
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantages
  • Examples of federal state

What is a federal state

The federal state is also known as the Federation or Federal Republic . A federal government is a system that was designed to take power from the richest and give it to the poor, so to speak. Power is then divided between the central government , which is the largest, most important, and strongest a nation has, and state and regional governments, which are smaller governments located within the same nation . This is done by assigning certain responsibilities to each of the sectors that make up the federal state so that each of the governments that constitute it have a certain task to fulfill and carry out.


Characteristics of the federal state

Among its main characteristics we can mention the following:

  • It is made up of different bodies such as associations, groups, unions that are associated with a higher body that belongs to the State .
  • They have a certain amount of autonomy .
  • Government actions are distributed among a group of states that are associated.
  • The federal state has a constitution written is sometimes known as Magna Carta and which regulates the principles by which the government is governed.
  • It has a territorial division since it is formed by the division of powers over the territory.
  • In addition to having a central government, there are also different lower governments that help make decisions regarding some public services depending on where it is located.
  • The judicial action of the country is given through a supreme court of justice.

Decentralized federal state

This type of state is when the power of a central government is transferred to the authorities that are hierarchically subject. This relationship that occurs can never be vertical . It can also be of three types:  political , administrative and social . In this way, we can say that the government or decentralized state is the type of state in which power is attributed through the central government and local governments are in charge of working as its agents. It has its own assets and managestheir affairs independently of senior management. It is a government in which only the State is the one that can exercise some kind of power. In addition, it is based on the principle of autarky , which is a political and economic organization of the State based on self-supply.

Difference between unitary and federal state

The difference is that the unitary state can be organized as a single center , its form of organization then encompasses and is defined over the entire territory. The federal state divides the country into different groups , either by provinces or by states , and these have authority over the territories. In the unitary statepolitical power is directed to the entire territory through legal authorities in charge of enforcing the law, and the federal state has a republican and monarchical political system .


  • The agreements that take place between the rulers can be more localized and with a more direct link since the authorities are closer to the citizens.
  • Increases and facilitates citizen participation .
  • It makes it easier to learn about community problems and possible solutions .
  • It helps the government develop policies , monitor public administration , and evaluate results .


  • The agreements that occur between the rulers and the inhabitants of the town can give rise to coordination problems that reduce the effectiveness of the action of the government itself.
  • It is difficult for him to carry out tasks together .

Examples of federal state

For example, in the United States , the Constitution of the country dictates that the federal government has the ability to maintain control over some things such as the creation of money, the granting of patents, and the creation of lower courts. Another example of federal government responsibility includes the power to declare war . These are known as ” delegated powers ” and are specifically listed in Article 1 of the United States Constitution.

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