Advertisement

Exocrine glands

Advertisement

If we talk about exocrine glands, we could deduce that these are part of the large group of cells that are part of the exocrine system, therefore, they have direct contact with what is the skin and the external environment of the subject.

Advertisement

What are the exocrine glands?

The exocrine glands are also called external secretion glands , in opposition to the endocrine system that system works differently, it carries its products and hormones to the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid that is in the empty space that is between cell and cell. These glands are usually dual, since there is a secretory and an excretory part in them , the secretory part is the one that distributes all those substances and hormones typical of the glands and the excretory part that conveys another substance , which is generally another hormone, and distributes it to a distant and specific place, these latter are called amphrichrine glands.

Advertisement
  • Function
  • Classification of the exocrine glands
  • features
  • Types
  • What are the main exocrine glands
  • Location
  • Importance of the exocrine glands

Function

The function of these glands is to keep the internal ducts of the body that collide or join with the external ducts in good condition, thus secreting in the hollow organs , mostly, hormones that not only distribute nutrients to the entire body, They also expel to the outside all the waste that the body no longer needs, that is, these glands that are part of the exocrine system have two fundamental functions to give the anatomy what it needs and clean it of everything that will cause it some type of damage in the long run.

Advertisement

In addition to this, having this double function, some of them also have what is called a dual system, that is, some of these exocrine glands have two ways to put it in a certain way , a secretory and an excretory, the first is responsible for dispersing enzymes , nutrients and hormones and the second generates some type of hormone , of which we do not yet have a complete knowledge, and distributes it to other organs that are not the holes, at a moderate distance so that it does not mix with the hormones previously expelled.

Classification of the exocrine glands

There are many ways to classify exocrine glands, here are some of those ways:

Classification according to its structure

These glands are mostly composed of two parts, a glandular part and another part that is specifically duct, this can be used to classify the gland, knowing that said duct may or may not be branched , being the first option called a compound gland and being unbranched, it is distinguished as a simple gland; the most fundamental parts of the glands can be tubular, acinar or a composition of both tubolo-acinar , in the event that the gland bifurcates , the option of calling it a bifurcated gland will be taken.

Classification according to the biochemical substance they secrete

  • Merocrine glands: Its material is synthesized in ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, its secretion is released by exocytosis.
  • Apocrine glands: These accumulate the secretion in the apical location of the cell to later be released.
  • Holocrine glands: They accumulate the product in the cytosol, when they mature they break, thus releasing all the biochemical substance contained.

features

The exocrine glands secrete biochemicals, hormones, and products through the body’s excretion ducts. These are some of its characteristics:

  • So generally , your hormones are specifically hollow organs.
  • These have direct contact with the skin and with the outside.
  • They are totally opposite to the endocrine glands .
  • Its secretions include mucus, sweat, oil, wax, and digestive enzymes.
  • They are dual, that is, they have a double function.

Types

Unicellular exocrine glands

These glands are composed of unique and special cells to secrete hormones or biochemicals , these cells are intertwined and mixed with other cells which secrete any substances, these cells nonsecreting are called epithelial cells, these cell s are characterized by thin and flat, like a tiny sheet and are closely adhered to some surfaces, such as skin and some other coverings.

These glands are unicellular, so they do not have any duct, however, they are still considered exocrine glands because the products and hormones they secrete reach the surface of the body cavities directly.

The most mentioned and recognized unicellular exocrine glands are the goblet glands , which secrete mucus and are found in the epithelium of the trachea and in the digestive tract.

Multicellular exocrine glands

These glands are composed of a great diversity of cells , they are commonly formed by invagination or bagging of an epithelial sheet , the epithelium expands and grows from the surface to the nearest tissues, thus forming a simple or compound tube, which in turn Once the gland forms, the blind part of the tube is identified as the secretory location of the gland and can remain in that specific tubular shape or expand to later form round pockets called cornflowers or alveoli.

What are the main exocrine glands

Next we will see which are the main exocrine glands:

  • Sweat glands : these eliminate the product or the consequences of perspiration towards the skin, that is, they regulate sweat in order to cool the skin, there are eccrine and apocrine sweat glands , eccrine glands work for life and apocrines begin their functioning process. from the beginning of the individual’s puberty.
  • Sebaceous glands : these secrete sebum, which is a fatty substance composed of a diverse amount of fats, cholesterol, proteins and inorganic salts; This helps in the shine of the hair strands, protects the skin from excessive evaporation of water and helps it to remain flexible. These glands are extremely small and are found mostly on the face, neck, and breasts .
  • Salivary glands : these glands are found in the mouth and secrete, as their name says, saliva , of these glands there are three pairs: The submaxillary and sublingual , which pour viscous saliva under the tongue , and the glands are included in these Parotid salivary that discharge a luid saliva where the upper first molars meet.
  • Lacrimal glands: these, as their name says, produce the tears that are deposited in the lacrimal fossa, which is located in the upper outer part of each eye socket.
  • Mammary glands: as its name implies, it is located in the breasts and these are found in all mammals, responsible for the production of milk for feeding their young or children in the first months and weeks of life, these exocrine glands are classified as modified and mutated sweat glands.
  • Bulborethral glands or Cowper’s glands: these two exocrine glands found in the human male reproductive system , their common name was based on the existence of the English anatomist and surgeon William Cowper , who was the one who discovered them. The function of these tiny glands is to secrete a mostly alkaline liquid that lubricates, neutralizes and cleanses the urethra of the usual acidity that occurs in it, this happens minutes before the semen takes its course at the time of ejaculation .
  • Bartolini’s glands or major vestibular glands : these are two glands, in the same way as the previous ones, tiny that are located on the sides of the opening of the vagina , these are not visible to the human eye because of how small they are; Its special function is to secrete a liquid that helps lubricate the vulva at the time of sexual intercourse.
  • Pancreas: This gland secretes what is called pancreatic juice, an alkaline liquid that is used to ease digestion and burn some of the fats in the food you eat.
  • Liver: the gland found in the liver secretes concentrated bile, which is essential in the digestion of fats , this accumulates in the gallbladder and at the time of digestion it is released in what is called the duodenum.

Location

  • Sweat glands: they are located in the skin.
  • Bartolini glands: they are located in the vagina.
  • Cowper’s glands: found in the bag of the testicles.
  • Lacrimal or accessory glands: found in the eye.
  • Glands of the pancreas: they are commonly called exocrine pancreas, and as their name indicates, they are located in the pancreas.
  • Mammary glands:  located in the breasts.
  • Sebaceous glands:  located in some parts of the face, neck and breasts.
  • Salivary glands: they are located in the mouth.

Importance of the exocrine glands

These glands are essential for the development of the human body and the optimal functioning of the body, without these the body would not have, so to speak, a cleaning system, since these glands dispose of waste from the body to the outside, together To this, they are responsible for promoting, streamlining and giving more fluidity to what would be the sexual act and reproduction in the same way, without the mammary glands the first survival instinct in both humans and mammalian animals would not develop correctly. For this reason, these glands are essential to have an optimal quality of life.

Exocrine glands

If we talk about exocrine glands, we could deduce that these are part of the large group of cells that are part of the exocrine system, therefore, they have direct contact with what is the skin and the external environment of the subject.

What are the exocrine glands?

The exocrine glands are also called external secretion glands , in opposition to the endocrine system that system works differently, it carries its products and hormones to the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid that is in the empty space that is between cell and cell. These glands are usually dual, since there is a secretory and an excretory part in them , the secretory part is the one that distributes all those substances and hormones typical of the glands and the excretory part that conveys another substance , which is generally another hormone, and distributes it to a distant and specific place, these latter are called amphrichrine glands.

  • Function
  • Classification of the exocrine glands
  • features
  • Types
  • What are the main exocrine glands
  • Location
  • Importance of the exocrine glands

Function

The function of these glands is to keep the internal ducts of the body that collide or join with the external ducts in good condition, thus secreting in the hollow organs , mostly, hormones that not only distribute nutrients to the entire body, They also expel to the outside all the waste that the body no longer needs, that is, these glands that are part of the exocrine system have two fundamental functions to give the anatomy what it needs and clean it of everything that will cause it some type of damage in the long run.

In addition to this, having this double function, some of them also have what is called a dual system, that is, some of these exocrine glands have two ways to put it in a certain way , a secretory and an excretory, the first is responsible for dispersing enzymes , nutrients and hormones and the second generates some type of hormone , of which we do not yet have a complete knowledge, and distributes it to other organs that are not the holes, at a moderate distance so that it does not mix with the hormones previously expelled.

Classification of the exocrine glands

There are many ways to classify exocrine glands, here are some of those ways:

Classification according to its structure

These glands are mostly composed of two parts, a glandular part and another part that is specifically duct, this can be used to classify the gland, knowing that said duct may or may not be branched , being the first option called a compound gland and being unbranched, it is distinguished as a simple gland; the most fundamental parts of the glands can be tubular, acinar or a composition of both tubolo-acinar , in the event that the gland bifurcates , the option of calling it a bifurcated gland will be taken.

Classification according to the biochemical substance they secrete

  • Merocrine glands: Its material is synthesized in ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, its secretion is released by exocytosis.
  • Apocrine glands: These accumulate the secretion in the apical location of the cell to later be released.
  • Holocrine glands: They accumulate the product in the cytosol, when they mature they break, thus releasing all the biochemical substance contained.

features

The exocrine glands secrete biochemicals, hormones, and products through the body’s excretion ducts. These are some of its characteristics:

  • So generally , your hormones are specifically hollow organs.
  • These have direct contact with the skin and with the outside.
  • They are totally opposite to the endocrine glands .
  • Its secretions include mucus, sweat, oil, wax, and digestive enzymes.
  • They are dual, that is, they have a double function.

Types

Unicellular exocrine glands

These glands are composed of unique and special cells to secrete hormones or biochemicals , these cells are intertwined and mixed with other cells which secrete any substances, these cells nonsecreting are called epithelial cells, these cell s are characterized by thin and flat, like a tiny sheet and are closely adhered to some surfaces, such as skin and some other coverings.

These glands are unicellular, so they do not have any duct, however, they are still considered exocrine glands because the products and hormones they secrete reach the surface of the body cavities directly.

The most mentioned and recognized unicellular exocrine glands are the goblet glands , which secrete mucus and are found in the epithelium of the trachea and in the digestive tract.

Multicellular exocrine glands

These glands are composed of a great diversity of cells , they are commonly formed by invagination or bagging of an epithelial sheet , the epithelium expands and grows from the surface to the nearest tissues, thus forming a simple or compound tube, which in turn Once the gland forms, the blind part of the tube is identified as the secretory location of the gland and can remain in that specific tubular shape or expand to later form round pockets called cornflowers or alveoli.

What are the main exocrine glands

Next we will see which are the main exocrine glands:

  • Sweat glands : these eliminate the product or the consequences of perspiration towards the skin, that is, they regulate sweat in order to cool the skin, there are eccrine and apocrine sweat glands , eccrine glands work for life and apocrines begin their functioning process. from the beginning of the individual’s puberty.
  • Sebaceous glands : these secrete sebum, which is a fatty substance composed of a diverse amount of fats, cholesterol, proteins and inorganic salts; This helps in the shine of the hair strands, protects the skin from excessive evaporation of water and helps it to remain flexible. These glands are extremely small and are found mostly on the face, neck, and breasts .
  • Salivary glands : these glands are found in the mouth and secrete, as their name says, saliva , of these glands there are three pairs: The submaxillary and sublingual , which pour viscous saliva under the tongue , and the glands are included in these Parotid salivary that discharge a luid saliva where the upper first molars meet.
  • Lacrimal glands: these, as their name says, produce the tears that are deposited in the lacrimal fossa, which is located in the upper outer part of each eye socket.
  • Mammary glands: as its name implies, it is located in the breasts and these are found in all mammals, responsible for the production of milk for feeding their young or children in the first months and weeks of life, these exocrine glands are classified as modified and mutated sweat glands.
  • Bulborethral glands or Cowper’s glands: these two exocrine glands found in the human male reproductive system , their common name was based on the existence of the English anatomist and surgeon William Cowper , who was the one who discovered them. The function of these tiny glands is to secrete a mostly alkaline liquid that lubricates, neutralizes and cleanses the urethra of the usual acidity that occurs in it, this happens minutes before the semen takes its course at the time of ejaculation .
  • Bartolini’s glands or major vestibular glands : these are two glands, in the same way as the previous ones, tiny that are located on the sides of the opening of the vagina , these are not visible to the human eye because of how small they are; Its special function is to secrete a liquid that helps lubricate the vulva at the time of sexual intercourse.
  • Pancreas: This gland secretes what is called pancreatic juice, an alkaline liquid that is used to ease digestion and burn some of the fats in the food you eat.
  • Liver: the gland found in the liver secretes concentrated bile, which is essential in the digestion of fats , this accumulates in the gallbladder and at the time of digestion it is released in what is called the duodenum.

Location

  • Sweat glands: they are located in the skin.
  • Bartolini glands: they are located in the vagina.
  • Cowper’s glands: found in the bag of the testicles.
  • Lacrimal or accessory glands: found in the eye.
  • Glands of the pancreas: they are commonly called exocrine pancreas, and as their name indicates, they are located in the pancreas.
  • Mammary glands:  located in the breasts.
  • Sebaceous glands:  located in some parts of the face, neck and breasts.
  • Salivary glands: they are located in the mouth.

Importance of the exocrine glands

These glands are essential for the development of the human body and the optimal functioning of the body, without these the body would not have, so to speak, a cleaning system, since these glands dispose of waste from the body to the outside, together To this, they are responsible for promoting, streamlining and giving more fluidity to what would be the sexual act and reproduction in the same way, without the mammary glands the first survival instinct in both humans and mammalian animals would not develop correctly. For this reason, these glands are essential to have an optimal quality of life.

Leave a Comment