Excretory system


The  excretory system is also recognized as the urinary system, which means that it helps the human body to regulate everything related to this excretory function; Although it can be confused with the exocrine system, it is often shown that they are not the same and that they work differently.


What is the excretory system?

The excretory system is considered an apparatus of the human body. It is made up of the kidneys and all those organs that make up the excretory pathway, that is, in which what is called the excretory process begins and ends, of which urine and other fluids are part that dispose of what the body does not need and they purify the blood of unnecessary toxicities by expelling them to the outside through the urethra .

  • Function of the excretory system
  • features
  • Parts of the excretory system
  • How does it work
  • Diseases
  • Excretory system care
  • Importance of the excretory system

Function of the excretory system

The main function of the excretory system is to dispose of all those toxins that the body does not need or that could progressively affect it over time, in the same way it regulates everything that has to do with the flow of urine and purifies the blood, keeping it at turn balanced between water, glucose and salt that it may have.



The excretory system is an essential part of the body, therefore, some of its more specific characteristics will be specified below so that its importance and functioning in the human anatomy can be discriminated.

Unlike most systems or devices found in the body , the excretory system does not have glands in charge of secreting any biochemical compound , it excretes fluids through a cycle that never ends, which shows that the body in question is healthy.

  • Its parts are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
  • It is in charge of the excretory process.
  • Regulates salts, water and glucose found in the blood.
  • Releases and purifies the body of toxins by excreting them through the urethra in the form of urine.
  • The excretory system is complex, you must be very careful with it because any malfunction or very good habit of the subject could be affecting it.

Parts of the excretory system

The excretory system is made up of the following parts:


This is one of the most important organs in the human anatomy , since it is responsible for producing, regulating and excreting urine , these are a pair of organs that are located lateral to the spine , in the lumbar area, one on each side respectively and are totally surrounded by fatty tissue , both are about 12 centimeters long, 5 centimeters wide and are about 3 centimeters thick or thick, weighing around 150 grams each.

It is divided in its interior by the cortex, which is of a yellowish almost brownish color which is located in the area of ​​the periphery of the kidneys and this is the medulla that is in the internal area and unlike the cortex is of a reddish hue; It is important to note that specifically one of the kidneys acts as a filter in some way, that is, it works as follows:

  • Function as a regulatory organ: the kidney that has the ability to be a filter will be able to maintain a type of balance in the blood between what are water, salts and glucose .
  • Function as a purifying organ: this same kidney in turn extracts from the blood all those components that are harmful to the body, purifying and cleaning it so that it does not affect the subject, after which it expels it abroad.

Renal pelvis

This is located under the cortex and the medulla of the kidney , it is considered a subdivided inner chamber that collects the urine that progressively forms in the kidneys to redirect it towards the ureter, in this they penetrate and leave what are the vein renal and renal artery.


They are the filters that make up the kidneys, they are found in the outer layer in a tiny way, they are composed and surrounded by a complex and extensive network of blood vessels that are responsible for filtering the blood and gradually creating the urine that ends up drop by drop. containing in the renal pelvis.

Malpighi glomerulus

It is distinguished by being a circular structure that is formed thanks to a ball of blood capillaries , from these the liquid is taken through the porous capillary walls.

Renal tubule

This is long, contoured and thin, it has the identical shape of a loop and around it are a network of blood capillaries, said tubule is divided into three parts:

  • The proximal tubule.
  • Henle’s handle.
  • The distal tubule.


This is easily identified by being the connection between the renal pelvis to the bladder, they are shaped like two long tubes that are constituted thanks to the smooth muscle fiber, some mucous epithelia and nerve endings, the ureters are those that regulate the functioning of the urinary system , since they are the ones that give the order to the urine so that it is propelled and emptied from the renal pelvis towards the bladder ; These tubular organic components are extremely sensitive to pain, so if the consequences and subsequent physical manifestations were obstructed, they would be painful.


This is considered the organ that functions as a container for the urine that comes from the kidneys, it is being stored that can be easily expanded , that is, the bladder is elastic and is made up of smooth muscle fiber, its containment capacity varies according to the subject, however this round by the liter. In addition to this, the subject begins to feel the urge to urinate or a certain pressure in the area when it has around 400 cubic centimeters of fluid, which is a warning warning not to force the bladder and to be able to contract in the future some pathology due to that.


This is recognized for its ability to expel and eliminate all the wastes of the organisms sending them and expelling them to the outside, it is shaped like a tube that starts from the inside of the bladder, which in its beginning is composed of two sphincters or muscular valves which control the passage of urine. This anatomical part of the body varies according to the sex of the subject, since in man it includes what is the virile member and the reproductive function

Being in this way that the urethra in females has a length of 3 cm to 4 cm, going from the outer base of the bladder to the labia minora, this being the beginning of the folds of the vagina; In man, the urethra has a length of 17 cm to 20 cm and it has three relevant parts, the pelvic portion, which is surrounded by the prostate, the membranous portion, and the spongy portion, the last of which corresponds to the penis.

How does it work

The excretory system is made up of 4 parts, all with a unique and irreplaceable function, the process or the operation of this apparatus is as follows, the urine that gradually forms in the kidneys is filtered passing through the ureters , after this All that content is emptied into the bladder thus accumulating in that place, when it can no longer contain any more urine or is reaching the limit of its capacities, it sends most of the urinary content to the urethra and this is expelled to the outside.


The main diseases that affect the excretory system are:

Renal insufficiency

It is called for being the incapacity that the subject has that his kidneys cannot filter or purify the blood, it can be biological or caused ; Therefore, as the blood cannot be filtered, toxic components accumulate and deposit in the body that should have been eliminated in the purification process, or the opposite could also happen, that substances and components that have to be conserved are eliminated due to contamination that spread toxins, such as proteins or red blood cells.

When kidney failure is considered severe, an artifact called dialysis is used , which is an artificial kidney that replaces the functions of the damaged kidney, but still does not do so with the capacity that an organic structure could .


This pathology is considered an inflammation of the urinary bladder, it is commonly due to bacteria lodged in the urethra, vagina or in more extreme cases in the kidneys, it could also be caused by residues of crystals or salts that remain in the urethra duct Because of the urine, however, another reason, in women at least, is to maintain a lot of sexual friction; People who suffer from this disease that although it is momentary is quite tedious, they must tolerate pain when urinating, in some cases there is mild urinary incontinence, the subject really wants to go to the bathroom and when he goes to urinating is only one or two drops that may or may not be excreted with blood.

Kidney stones

This pathology is recognized on a daily basis as kidney stones , which are caused by the accumulation of salt or urinary crystals in them , these can cause bleeding, some secondary infections that are mixed with this or any type of obstruction that limits or cancels the functioning of the excretory system.


This poisoning is produced by the accumulation of waste products and unnecessary for the body in the blood that the kidney should have previously eliminated.

Excretory system care

The easiest way to keep the excretory system in an optimal state is to constantly drink water, regularly, since this improves the flow of the cycle and stimulates more urination, the consumption of fruits, vegetables and foods with a large amount of Water is necessary for the health not only of this system, but also of the organism. Hygiene is another relevant point and the elimination or reduction of the consumption of black drinks and spicy foods.

Importance of the excretory system

The importance of the excretory system  lies in its ability to eliminate all toxins and purify the body , thanks to this the body remains free of all harmful agents that could progressively damage it.

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