Emotional intelligence


Emotional intelligence is known as the ability of every human being to recognize the emotions of other people and their own and based on this act in the most appropriate situations.


What is emotional intelligence?

It consists of that type of Intelligence whose focus is on the affective spectrum . It is about that ability to know how to capture, interpret and regulate the emotions that are within one or those that we come to see in other people. Its usefulness is that it enables people to improve their social skills and perform better in areas such as business and work.



When people talk about Intelligence , they usually think of characters like Albert Einstein or Stephen Hawkins . Both were characters with a much higher than average IQ, and whose contributions to modern civilization are not easy to question. However, with the passing of the 20th century and subsequent social advances , business sectors first, and then psychosocial sectors second, they were able to observe that it takes more than “ Intelligence ” for people to achieve success in life.


Little by little it was discovered that Intelligence is not only cognitive; it can also be emotional .

The emotional intelligence is the capacity or type of intelligence aimed at identifying and managing emotions, whether in yourself or someone else. The usefulness of this attribute lies in being a necessary requirement for the optimal performance of the subject in the social sphere , all this since it allows people to be aware of the emotional reaction of their own or of others, and what are the most appropriate actions. suitable for success in the social world . Here are some details on the subject.

Characteristics of emotional intelligence

  • It is a type of Intelligence , since it starts, as Gardner establishes , that it is not just one, but rather presents a very complex classification, in which each one has its own competencies and weaknesses.
  • It was developed in the second half of the 20th century, as a theoretical instrument that allows us to understand the success or failure of workers in the business environment .
  • His focus is on the emotional world , be it his own or someone else’s. As it is a tool oriented to the social environment , it allows knowing and predicting which are the affective reactions that oneself or someone else experiences or will experience.

What is it for

The usefulness of emotional intelligence cannot be compared to the usefulness of the so-called ” Normal Intelligence “ (which we will call ” Cognitive Intelligence ” here ). Both are concepts oriented to different situations. While Cognitive Intelligence focuses on solving mathematical, abstract or logical problems (such as solving a company’s debt ), emotional intelligence seeks to give understanding and approach to social problems in the moment. Be part of the premise that social problems arise due to failures in understanding and managing one’s own and other people’s emotions, which are deregulated due to lack of knowledge. Its usefulness is in allowing people to resolve conflicts where the emotional participates , and thus, that the subject has greater success in this area.


Following Goleman, what types of emotional intelligence can we highlight? Here are the following, which we hope will serve as a guide:


It is the use of emotional intelligence oriented clearly towards the person himself, towards his internal world. It is about emotional intelligence that allows the person to know what they are feeling, why they are feeling, what they can do with it and how to use the emotion for a productive purpose.


Which focuses on what the other person feels, what frustrates or makes them happy, and what things you can do yourself for that person and their emotional well-being .


Following Salovey, on the other hand, we know that emotional intelligence  has the following elements:

  • The process of knowing which or which are the affects that are being experienced at a given moment.
  • The ability to manage or regulate those affects , such as anger, frustration, or sadness.
  • The gift of organizing emotions in the sense of the purposes that each one proposes.
  • The ability to empathize , to be able to tune in with what another person feels.
  • And the ability to use the above in order to improve interpersonal relationships .

Models of emotional intelligence

Between the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, it was possible to discern three great models of emotional intelligence . These models do not contradict each other, but rather complement each other. Here are some of them:

Salovey-Meyer model

Of all the models, the most used in the individual field . Its focus is to know and evaluate the state of mind and reflect on it.

Goleman model

The most used in the business environment . Its use is more oriented to the management of social relationships within the company or work .

Bar-On Model

It is the model most applied to the educational area . Its use is given to improve school coexistence, although it is criticized for its complexity.

Activities to develop emotional intelligence

Over the years, a multitude of dynamics have been developed to improve this ability. These include meditation groups, role plays, daily physical activities, support groups, and promoting talks.

Emotional intelligence in children

Due to their young age, children are a very vulnerable population to the problems that arise due to the lack of EI. Usually, much of the behavior or academic problems arise due to an emotional difficulty that, due to their inexperience, they are unable to understand and regulate. Such difficulties are associated with the emotional difficulties of the parents , who, too, often have problems managing their own emotions.

Professions associated with emotional intelligence

Some of the professions where emotional intelligence is most often used as a skill are:

  • Psychology .
  • Right .
  • Business Administration.
  • Social work.
  • Medicine .

Emotional intelligence at work

As it is a widely used construct in the workplace , Goleman establishes that the worker must:

  • Have self-knowledge .
  • Ability to address emotionally .
  • Possess strong social skills .
  • Ability to use all of the above to manage .

Relationship with leadership

So far, all of the above leads us to think of leadership as a role that requires a good EI degree . The conditions to which the leader or manager is subjected subject him to high levels of pressure, and to constantly consider the socio – affective situation of the other (his co- workers ). Leading therefore implies having a good EI.


At the time, this construct became revolutionary by giving a twist towards what was understood by Intelligence . Thanks to this concept, there is a theoretical and practical instrument that allows addressing the failures of emotional intelligence and their consequences on health and subjective and social well-being .


Let’s take an example that makes EI easier to understand . Suppose there is a couple has problems for a long time. One of the members comes home late and with a lot of stress , and to handle it, the other person decides to listen to what is happening to the other. Of course, both are stressed , but the person who chooses to listen knows that their partner is much more upset by this than their own person. By doing this, your partner is calmer and, coincidentally, more receptive to listening to the other’s problems now. The experience and practice of being contentIt is an example that teaches the other to use that same skill with others, thus becoming a multiplier of experience .


  • Emotional Intelligence , by Daniel Goleman.
  • Educate with Emotional Intelligence , by Steven E. Tobias.
  • The Emotional Intelligence of children , Lawrence E. Shapiro.

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