The dysorthography or as it is better known to dyslexia , is a functional disorder in the engine component that involves the act of writing , and therefore affects the quality of writing. Most authors defend that the concept includes a difficulty in learning to read. It is considered a syndrome that is characterized by the difficulty of distinguishing and memorizing letters or groups of letters, as well as problems related to the rhythm and structure of sentences that affect the reading and writing processes.


What is disortography?

The dysorthography is an alteration that occurs in the form of writing which affects the quality of the writing causing difficulties in fine motor , is a disorder of the learning and the deficit of attention .


This is a situation that can appear in any social group, regardless of age , sex , ethnicity or economic or cultural conditions.


The awareness of parents, teachers and the entire educational community about this problem allows these children to be treated and properly guided to prevent the dropout rate.

Characteristics of dysorthography

The main characteristics of disortography are as follows:

  • It is a condition that can impair a person’s ability to read , write , spell, and even speak .
  • The degree of intensity can vary and if it is treated in time, very good results will be obtained.
  • It occurs in children with ranges of vision and intelligence within the normal range.
  • It is a disorder that persists throughout life.
  • With a special program for children, they are able to succeed in school.
  • They have the ability to understand complex ideas, but they will need more time to process the information.
  • Reading problems are more common in boys than in girls .
  • Its symptoms are difficult to recognize before the child starts school.


Dysorthography can be of several types, which are mentioned below:

  • Temporal : it is related to time and rhythm. They do not have clarity in phonemes or in the transcription of phrases or words.
  • Perceptual-kinesthetic : they have difficulties articulating phonemes and hearing problems. They change the “r” for the letter “l”.
  • Dysortokinetic : it is related to visual and spatial orientation problems.
  • Dynamic : It is also known as dysgrammatism and they have difficulties with written expression and grammar.
  • Semantics : they have difficulty perceiving words.
  • Cultural : they do not have the ability to learn spelling norms or the use of accents.

Causes of dysorthography

The exact cause for dysorthography is still unknown, however researchers and doctors continue to work to determine the cause of dyslexia . It is believed that the genes and brain differences that occur in children with it could influence the chances of having dyslexia.

Dyslexia has been linked to specific genes that are responsible for controlling brain development . It is also considered a hereditary condition , since it tends to occur in members of the same family. About 40% of siblings of children with dysorthography may have the same reading problems.

Also, after certain traumas in the brain, the condition may appear, since it is the same organ that is in charge of controlling everything related to reading and writing. It can be generated by hormonal influences during fetal development.


Among the most common symptoms to observe in children with dysorthography we mention the following:

  • Form irregular pencil grip and press it to writing.
  • Outline very thick or very soft.
  • Unrecognizable, distorted or simplified letters , only the child understands what he wrote.
  • Font that is too big or too small or of inconsistent sizes.
  • The letters can be very far apart or overlapping .
  • They write very fast or slow .
  • Incorrect graphic posture and have spelling errors.
  • The lines are not respected .
  • They make improper use of uppercase and lowercase letters .
  • Non- existent or incorrect score.

Diagnosis of dysorthography

The diagnosis is made through a medical examination who is in charge of evaluating the child’s vision and hearing in order to rule out that a different problem is affecting the child’s ability to read. It will inquire about the general development of the child and if it will investigate if any member of the family has reading problems or other learning problems. The child will then be sent to a specialist, which may be a psychologist or other professional specialized in learning disabilities, who will confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of dysorthography

There is no treatment that can correct the part of the brain that is damaged, but early detection and assessment of children’s needs improves their performance in both reading and writing.

There are specific educational techniques that are implemented in schools and colleges to develop student-friendly designs . Individualized tutorial sessions help children to recognize phonemes , understand letters and sounds , understand what they observe, and expand vocabulary .


Some exercises that can be implemented in classrooms are the following:

  • Syllabic segmentation : asking you to tell us how many syllables a word has.
  • Substitution of syllables : ask you to substitute a certain syllable of the word for another that we give you.
  • Find hidden syllables orally : we ask you to indicate the hidden syllable or missing piece, in a word.
  • Identify which syllable is repeated in two different words.
  • Phoneme segmentation : ask you to tell us how many sounds a word has.
  • We ask you to indicate the hidden phoneme or sound that is missing in the word.

Leave a Comment