Among the social problems that the world is currently suffering, one of the most controversial is discrimination, because while we have “bullying” within academic institutions, studies have shown that every day the level of xenophobia increases in different countries.

What is discrimination?

Discrimination is nothing more than a social phenomenon, which with each passing day becomes more severe and worrying, since in this the integrity of each human being within a society is undermined, violating their universal rights.

  • Definition of discrimination
  • Source
  • Story
  • Characteristics
  • Class
  • Types
  • Causes
  • Consequences
  • How to avoid discrimination
  • Discrimination by country
  • Examples

Definition of discrimination

Discrimination is defined as an action or behavior, in which an individual in full use of their faculties decides to attack either verbally or physically against another individual based on their own simple convictions , in the form of rejection of the other individual in question.



The earliest origins of discrimination are believed to have occurred in early structured societies. In Rome women only had the task of cooking and washing their husband’s clothes, while children could not attend certain places if they did not belong to a specific social class .

In Greece for a long period of time men could not attend philosophical schools if they did not have at least a lower degree of study , while women were only allowed to prostitute themselves and people with disabilities were thrown into the mountains to starving and unable to reproduce


Where rejection or discrimination is really revived was during the time of the conquests, where men who were slaves were forced to carry out any task that was imposed on them, in addition to not being able to belong to any white society, this for their skin color which showed them of African origin.

In turn, the indigenous peoples of the region were forced to unite only the strata of society that were allowed during the times of the colonies, in addition they were given theater tasks where they had to make humorous odes to the stories of their conquest, both before they arrived and after.


Discrimination has many characteristics, but there are three of the most relevant:

  • Discriminatory attacks to a lesser degree are simply verbal, but when they escalate they can become physical and even psychological.
  • The highest rate of discrimination is seen at the level of the educational system among children and also among adolescents . While the second highest rate of discrimination is seen at the employment level with respect to women.
  • Although for the majority of people who discriminate against others it is ” mere words ” or a game between them, for those who suffer these attacks they end up being something very severe.


In the world there are various types of discrimination, the main ones are:

  • Discrimination by age: this type of discrimination includes all the rejections whose source of origin is age, it is very present especially in the stage of childhood and adolescence, always being from the oldest to the minors.
  • Gender discrimination:  includes all rejections that occur both for being a man and for being a woman . This is due to the roles implanted within society, mainly affecting women by placing them as a sexual object , or also that they cannot work, and if they work they suffer from workplace harassment .
  • By ethnic origin:  discriminates based on a person’s origin of birth. It is usually very common in European countries compared to people born on the African continent ; it also includes nations that are xenophobic .
  • Discrimination due to disability: this type of discrimination includes all rejections that their source of origin is their disabilities, which generates a reason for derision on the part of adolescents who consider it to be a source of ridicule.
  • By sexual orientation: it  is what people who belong to LGBT society suffer , it usually occurs in countries that do not even accept that there is a large gay community within them, resulting in their being displaced by society .
  • Discrimination by species: although it sounds quite strange, animals also suffer from discrimination, this happens for example in nations that appreciate cats more than dogs and vice versa. Even this happens within the same species, when one race is sought more than another.
  • By laterality: it  is one in which people suffer rejection for dominating their left side more than the right , this occurs more than any cultural level in nations that believe that the left hand is that of the devil.
  • Discrimination due to pregnancy: this type of discrimination includes all the rejections that people suffer when they are pregnant and are rejected by their relatives or friends when they question or oppress them because of the situation they are going through.
  • Discrimination for religious beliefs:  suffered by people who have beliefs different from those that are believed mostly in a nation, for example the rejection of the santeros in Catholic countries.
  • By personality: it includes all the rejections suffered by people who have a personality or behavioral form different from what is usually seen. This is seen in the same way very present within the stage of adolescence and young adulthood since some people do not have the degree of maturity to understand such situations.


Because discrimination has become a world-class problem, specialists have studied and classified 9 types of discrimination:

  • Direct discrimination: It arises when a person simply does not want to belong to a group due to mere personal conceptions.
  • Indirect discrimination: It arises when a person simply wants to belong to a group for mere personal conceptions and these do not allow him to access it.
  • Cognitive discrimination: It arises when a person has a great intellect or IQ so he is rejected from certain groups that do not have said intellect.
  • Non-cognitive discrimination: It arises when a person does not have a great intellect or IQ so he is rejected from certain groups.
  • Hierarchical discrimination: It arises when a person is displaced by the fact that they are not in a higher position within an organization chart.
  • Reflective discrimination: It arises when a person who is discriminated against, also ends up discriminated against others.
  • Discrimination of the first order: It arises when a person is rejected by another institution for reasons of belief.
  • Second-order discrimination: It arises when one person discriminates against another within the first order, which is why they end up being discriminated against by their own organization.
  • Epistemic discrimination: It arises when a person is not taken into account a certain opinion because they do not have a certain level of recognition within a society


In general, discrimination conceals a certain fear within each individual, which belongs to one situation or another deliberately . At the same time, it is also due to a bad formation within the values ​​at home since it was not taught correctly that all human beings should respect each other.

There are many cases in which those who discriminate against another only do not want to be seen as weak people before society , or it also happens when the person is afraid of being abandoned by this new that is coming.


If evaluated on a psychological level, all people who suffer from constant rejection end up having severe problems . In general, at first the person ends up suffering from anxiety , but each time the situation becomes more constant, they can suffer from major disorders such as depression or fear of society directly.

How to avoid discrimination

All institutions must ensure the well-being of their society, not only at the academic level but also at the government level, since all must create plans for social inclusion , psychological support for people who have suffered rejection as well as plans for awareness raising in order to educate or teach the population of all ages about these issues.

Discrimination by country

At present, countries such as Argentina in the case of discrimination against women is being very strongly treated, since although it is true that the rejection must end, the way in which they are trying is not the correct one.

For their part, countries like Mexico have implemented very strong measures to reduce discrimination within their educational institutions after a series of tragedies that occurred, including fines for parents to compensate for psychological damage to children.


Currently, various media have understood the strong work they have to work to end discrimination issues and others that affect society. That is why children’s channels such as Cartoon Network, have implemented various audio-visual content within their programming grid where these issues are dealt with in order for children to see them, be trained and become aware within society .

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