The diesel engine is part of the group of internal combustion engines , a type of thermal engine in which the entire combustion process is carried out in its internal part, specifically in the cylinder in order to transform the chemical energy provided by the fuel into mechanical energy , necessary for the vehicle to be able to move.
The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the increase in temperature produced when a gas is compressed so that the fuel can ignite spontaneously when injected into the combustion chamber .
- Diesel engine characteristics
- Parts of a diesel engine
- How does it work
- What is it for
- Importance of the diesel engine
Diesel engine characteristics
Among the most important characteristics of the diesel engine are the following:
- They work through internal combustion .
- It can work with gasoline , diesel or with heavy oils that come from petroleum.
- They have good durability and a fairly long service life .
- Its parts suffer less wear .
- They have the ability to withstand a mileage
- They are reliable .
- They are inexpensive .
- They have a good ability to produce less mechanical torque, so they are more effective .
The history of the diesel engine dates back to 1893 when Rudolf Diesel , a worker who worked for a trucking company, created it. At that time, the engine continued to use four-stroke cycles , just as the gasoline engine did. However, its inventor wanted to make the engine capable of having better thermal performance and also more efficient , and for this he used an alternative volatile fuel .
In 1927 , Bosch manufactured the first injection pump for this type of engine and this is how it was possible to develop a type of internal combustion engine that had the advantage of consuming less fuel .
The types of diesel engine that can be found are mentioned below:
- 4-stroke diesel engine: this type of diesel engine is used in land vehicles.
- 2-stroke diesel engine : they are engines that are larger and are used in larger means of transport such as ship and train engines.
Parts of a diesel engine
The parts that can be found in the diesel engine are the following:
- Segments : they are also called rings and they are circular pieces that are self-tensioning and that are located in the piston grooves. They function as a type of tight lock between the combustion chamber and the crankshaft .
- Engine block : in this piece the other pieces are placed and it has an opening where the cylinders, valves, camshafts and antifreeze pipes are located.
- Cylinder head : this piece is responsible for closing each of the cylinders at the top. They also have the function of support for other components of the engine.
- Crankshaft : it is a piece whose function is to be able to close each of the cylinders that are located inside the upper part.
- Pistons : These are essential parts of the engine and move from top to bottom.
- Camshaft : it is a rotating shaft that must move the cams and that also makes it possible for the motor to move in a synchronized manner.
- Crankcase : is responsible for closing the engine block.
- Injection pump : it is a device that works by raising the pressure of the fuel within the injection system.
- Transfer pump : it is responsible for feeding the injection pump.
- Nozzles : introduces the pulverized diesel that is located inside the combustion chamber.
- Glow Plugs – This part of the engine helps the engine start.
How does it work
To understand the operation of the diesel engine, it is important to remember that it is an internal combustion heat engine and does not need a spark to be ignited. The operation of this type of engine is given by means of four times which are mentioned below:
- Intake : it is the first time and it occurs when the intake valve is filled with air.
- Compression : in this phase, the intake valve closes when the piston reaches a lower dead center and the stroke begins until reaching the upper one while the air is compressed at the same time that it is located in the cylinder.
- Combustion : this process occurs shortly before top dead center is reached. At this time, the injector is in charge of spraying the fuel that is inside the chamber and later, it ignites when it comes into contact with hot air.
- Exhaust : it occurs when the pressure produced by the temperature generates an impulse in the piston downwards and part of the energy produced is then used to return it to neutral while expelling the gases that are burned so that later the cycle starts again.
What is it for
The diesel engine is a type of engine that is used to mobilize light vehicles but that also serve to be used within the field of industry because its great power and capacity makes them have very important characteristics such as power , simplicity , the low consumption of fuel and hardness .
Proper maintenance includes a regular inspection of the spark plugs, mainly during winter, this same maintenance must be carried out on the engine gaskets to avoid possible leaks . The oil filters must also be carefully selected since in this type of engine waste sulfur and carbon are produced. In order to achieve the best possible performance and thus avoid accidents, it must be ensured that all fluids are properly cooled before being drained.
One of its most important advantages is that the type of fuel used to make it work is much cheaper and has a better performance than gasoline. A series of mechanisms and technology have been developed to ensure that this type of engine reduces the pollution it produces, which is why they have a better market output. You can also save more fuel when using a diesel engine, they are more durable and suffer less wear without losing their towing ability .
The diesel engine also has some small disadvantages. The main one is the price as it is much more expensive when compared to a gasoline engine. The type of maintenance that should be given to the diesel engine is a bit stricter because its care must be carried out periodically and, when this is not done, they become a real source of contamination . They are much heavier engines than others and their speed is also lower. The labor for repairs is also quite high and the chances of being able to change the partsthat make it up is reduced. Finally, they are quite noisy which also generates sonic pollution in the environment.
Importance of the diesel engine
The diesel engine is important because in addition to being quite modern, they have the ability to be more economical and powerful . They are also very safe , especially if you need to use the vehicle on roads that are not in good condition.