The justice is one of the most important aspects part of all societies in the world. To enforce it or to pass judgments and establish sentences for crimes committed, courts of justice have been created . These are the places where magistrates have the ability to properly administer justice.
A court of law is a type of body of public nature that has the primary purpose of exercising the jurisdiction , in other words, is the charge of being able to resolve the various disputes on matters which are subject to judgment .
- Characteristics of the courts of justice
- Types of courts of law
- What are they for
- How do they work
- Courts of justice by country
- International Courts of Justice
Characteristics of the courts of justice
Among the main characteristics that make up the courts of justice are the following:
- It is characterized by being a physical space in which the different conflicts that occur between two parties can be resolved .
- In the courts are those in charge of representing the accused , who are known by the name of prosecutors .
- The justice is imparted in the courts of Justice by judges.
- They are made up of several magistrates , who have sufficient experience to be able to carry out the position.
- Through it, the Judicial Power can be exercised .
- It is part of the three powers that make up the State .
Courts of justice have approximately a thousand years of evolution and have faced a series of important changes in order to be able to satisfy the needs of society . In ancient times, criminal and civil disputes were decided mainly in battles in which victory proved innocence or guilt. This type of trial gradually lost power and in 1818 it was totally prohibited, causing the litigants to resort to a little more conventional means.
It was at this time that the judges began to gradually become independent from the monarchs. The first judges existed in the 20th century and were officials who had great experience in advising the king for the resolution of disputes . From this group of men the judges on duty were later born , who adopted administrative and mixed jurisdiction .
It was thanks to Henry II between the years 1154 and 1189 , that the modern justice system began to be used and at that time, it was possible to establish a jury composed of twelve knights with the aim of being able to resolve disputes, mainly related to the land. The first judge of the court was Martin of Pateshull , in England .
With the passage of time, a new type of court began to emerge and evolve, which today is known as a magistrate’s court or court of law . This type of court dates back mainly to the Anglo-Saxon court , however, its date of origin was established in 1285 during the reign of Edward I and its main function was to maintain peace for the king. It was not until 1830 that important changes took place in the criminal justice courts .
Types of courts of law
It is possible to find several types of courts of law which are classified depending on some criteria . In such a way that, depending on the form of constitution they have, the following can be found:
- Ordinary : they are the courts in charge of working on matters that are under their jurisdiction, regardless of the nature or the participants.
- Specials : they deal with more specific topics such as the resolutions of specific cases.
- Arbitrators : they are directed by arbitrators, who will be in charge of facing the resolution of a certain conflict through the parties, in other words, seeking a mutual agreement between them.
Depending on the type of jurisdiction in which the courts of law specialize, we can find the following types:
- Courts of common or mixed jurisdiction : are those courts that have the capacity to respond to any type of matter, including cases that concern crimes committed by minors.
- Special : these are courts that deal with more specific issues.
Likewise, they can also be divided depending on the operation they execute, then, we can find the following types:
- Investigative Courts of Justice : their function is to carry out preparatory acts before a trial.
- Sentencing courts of justice : in them is where the sentence of a certain fact is dictated.
What are they for
Courts of justice serve to be able to enforce the law and to act as mediator in conflicts that may arise.
The powers of the supreme courts of justice extend to the four different jurisdictional orders . The civil and criminal court has a type of objective and functional competence , and the other rooms are based on competencies related to orders related to the regulation of the Judicial Power .
How do they work
The courts of justice are bodies that function as the head of the Judicial Power of each nation and function independently of other bodies that make up this power. Through the application of jurisdiction , it effectively resolves disputes and enforces the law . Its operation will depend at all times on the judges , who are part of the courts and will be in charge of enforcing the law.
Courts of justice by country
In the country, all the autonomous communities do not have their own administration of justice , but on the contrary, they participate in the management of all administrative competences . The Constitution of the country establishes a Superior Court of Justice in each of the communities, before which procedural instances can be resolved.
The courts of justice are basically in all the States and in them, lawyers go to try to solve the problems of the users when they are faced with a possible conviction.
In Argentina, the main body is known as the Supreme Court of Justice and later, there are the lower courts of justice which are established by the National Congress. They have the function of resolving all conflicts that are regulated by the country’s legislation and are distributed throughout the territory.
In Chile there are several national courts of justice which enjoy autonomy and are also independent . They are established by law and they are responsible for everything related to the jurisdictional function and the resolution of conflicts that have a certain degree of legal relevance.
The courts of justice are governed by the Supreme Court of Justice of Colombia, which is made up of a total of 23 magistrates.
International Courts of Justice
The international courts of justice or the International Court of Justice is a judicial body, the main entity of the United Nations . It has a double mission: first, it is in charge of settling disputes between States, following international law, and issuing opinions related to legal issues .
The courts are of great importance because the law could not be enforced without their existence. The judges who work in them can decide based on the law and not on the facts and also not taking into account whims that may have the changing policy currents . They are in charge of interpreting and applying the law when the parties are under some type of dispute. They then apply the law and manage to resolve the different disputes that arise between individuals , companies or between government units .