Core of the Earth

Beneath the Earth’s mantle is the core, which is the very center of the Earth and is made up mostly of heavy metals , especially iron. The outer core is in a liquid state, which is why it is considered the filling of the Earth. The inner core, on the other hand, is solid and contains at least 90% iron. The inner core can be considered as a layer of the dense mass of the Earth. When the Earth first formed, 4.6 billion years ago, it was a hot ball of rock and molten metal . And since it was mostly liquid, heavier elements like iron and nickelthey were able to sink into the planet and accumulate in the core of the Earth .

What is the core of the Earth?

The core of the Earth is the central and innermost part of our planet Earth, composed of nickel , iron , oxygen and sulfur in smaller proportions. It is the hottest layer and has two parts, inner and outer core.

  • Characteristics of the Earth’s core
  • Composition
  • Divisions of the Earth’s core
  • How the Earth’s Core Was Formed
  • Importance

Characteristics of the Earth’s core

Among the main characteristics of the Earth’s core we can mention the following:

  • It is made up mainly of iron and nickel.
  • Its radius is approximately 3,200 and 3,500 kilometers.
  • It represents 60% of the total mass that the Earth has.
  • Its temperature is 6,700 ° C.
  • It is made up of an inner and an outer core.
  • Geologists believe that they have a density of 11,000 kg / m3.
  • Their rotation creates an electromagnetic field that protects the Earth’s surface against solar plasmas.


The Earth’s core is made up mainly of iron , nickel, and radioactive elements such as uranium and plutonium . You can also find materials such as iron, iridium, all of them of heavy consistencies. It represents 15 percent of the total volume of the Earth, 32 percent of the mass and its size is very similar to that of the planet Mars .

Divisions of the Earth’s core

The core of the Earth is divided into two parts that are:

  • Outer core : it is the most superficial region of the nucleus and is located above the inner core approximately 2,890 kilometers from the surface of the Earth. Its thickness is 2,300 kilometers and it is in a nuclear liquid state since it does not have the necessary pressure to solidify nor can seismic waves pass through it. You can find alloys of iron and nickel , oxygen and sulfur . Their temperatures are around 4,000 and 5,000 degrees Celsius . The movements that occur in the outer core produce the magnetic fieldthat the Earth has and convection currents are produced . It is a conductor of electricity and combined with the rotational movement that the Earth has, they form electric currents . It is responsible for the rotational movement of the Earth.
  • Inner core : it is formed mainly by an alloy of iron and nickel in a solid state and is about 1,200 kilometers thick. Their temperatures are around 5,000 and 7,000 degrees Celsius , much higher than the temperature of the sun. By having these high temperatures, it produces magnetism that is permanently present and that has the function of stabilizing the magnetic field that forms the outer core. According to scientific studies, the inner core rotates faster than the rest of the planet and it does so in a westerly direction.

How the Earth’s Core Was Formed

We know that our Earth was formed approximately 4.5 million years ago. During the first 100 million years after it was formed, the planet was nothing more than a very hot and liquid ball of rocks, but the particles that existed in the Solar System that had also just formed, began to collide and some of they managed to unite, which caused an increase in temperatures . The compounds that already existed on the planet managed to unite and articulate and in this way they began to differentiate and separate from each other. The substances that were heavier managed to have a displacement towards the bottomof the Earth, and those that were lighter and less dense rose, in this way it was as the layers of the Earth began to have different properties and characteristics between them. Geologists and researchers believe that the inner core began to become solid about 1 to 2 million years ago.


The core of the Earth is vitally important to our life in general . If the nucleus did not exist, all the inhabitants of the Earth and everything that inhabits it would not have the opportunity to live, this because the nucleus is responsible for generating magnetic currents , necessary to make the planet habitable. Without it, our magnetic field would not be strong enough to fight and protect against the sun’s rays and we would not be able to defend ourselves from the solar wind that collides with the planet.

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