Conveyer belt


In the production field , being able to carry or transport heavy and light materials from one place to another is a fundamental aspect for the efficient transfer of goods within a plant that is dedicated to production, in an industrial-type warehouse or in any kind of logistics company. In order to perform this function properly, there are conveyor belts or band as well known, which provide stability and speed in the transport of objects.


What is a conveyor belt?

conveyor belt is a type of means or transport system that uses a belt and requires a series of modules to function correctly in order to carry things from one place to another.

  • Features of the conveyor belt
  • History
  • What is the conveyor belt for?
  • Types of conveyor belt
  • Parties
  • How does it work
  • How to use
  • Accessories
  • Maintenance
  • Importance of the conveyor belt

Features of the conveyor belt

Among its main characteristics it is possible to find the following:

  • They are also known as belt conveyors .
  • They are used to transport goods and products .
  • Its speed and load capacity will always depend on the characteristics of the materials that are transported.
  • The tape can be dragged through the friction of the drums .
  • They are a device that can perform movements type horizontally .
  • They have the capacity to travel different distances that can reach up to 10 km.
  • They are quite resistant and easy to clean.
  • They are generally designed for specific uses .


The earliest recorded conveyor belts were used to carry coal and materials related to the mining industry around 1795 . The type of tape that was used at that time was quite primitive and consisted of a leather or rubber tape which could be slid on a wooden board , although this system did not have the expected success it did. lay the foundations so that years later engineers will manufacture fast and safe conveyors capable of moving large quantities of materials from one place to another.

In the 1920s , the Frick & Co company, founded by HC Frick, managed to demonstrate that it was possible to carry loads over long distances using this type of conveyor and later in 1913 , Henry Ford managed to introduce the assembly line which was based on in this type of tapes for its production in the Ford Motor Company . During the Second World War , conveyor belts gained special importance and from that moment on they have been developed and improved in the field of industry.

What is the conveyor belt for?

The conveyor belt is mainly used to transport different types of materials that can be agricultural or industrial from one place to another. It can also be used to transport people in closed places such as airports or health centers. It is an effective means to load or unload the trucks and cargo ships to carry materials on sloping terrain and transport crates or pallets. Moreover, it is a very functional means within the components in the chain assembly and in cargo transportation.

Types of conveyor belt

There are several types of conveyor belts which can be classified depending on the type of belt and the materials with which they are manufactured. Depending on the type of band , the following can be found:

  • Mobile floor conveyor belt : it is the most common to use, very versatile and has the ability to adapt to different sectors in the industry. It is a belt that has a continuous surface which rotates on the rollers and drums.
  • Roller conveyor belt: in this type of belt, the moving floor is formed by means of a set of circular tubes which rotate on themselves and the driving force is applied to the head so that the rollers can rotate uniformly, following the same direction and the same speed.

Depending on the material it is possible to find the following types of conveyor belts:

  • PVC tapes : they are useful for transporting boxes or pieces that are not sharp.
  • Thermo-weldable strip tapes : they are used in the food industry as they are resistant to water and grease.
  • Rubber tapes : they are very versatile and flexible as well as resistant. They have the ability to carry large amounts of weight and large objects.
  • Polyurethane tapes : they are resistant to heat and abrasion. When they are treated in a hypoallergenic way, it works very well for the transport of food.
  • Metal tapes : they are used in those places where the products that are transported must be subjected to substance baths. 


Its basic components are three:

  • Tape or band : one of the main materials used to make the tape is rubberized fabric, but other materials derived from rubber can also be used . Some tapes can even be plastic and are made in this case with PVC , polyamide or acetal . The tapes have a composition and structure that can vary depending on the number of layers with which it has been manufactured and the coating that covers them, which will depend on the use that will be given to the tape. As for its width and thicknessThese also vary remarkably depending mainly on the load capacity for which they have been manufactured.
  • Transmission : it is made up of the drums and the motor . In the case of drums , they are kind of roll that rotates and that doing so, cause the tape to move forward thanks to the friction on the band or by the action of the pinions it contains. The movement that is generalized in the driving drum is connected to the motor and the return drum is responsible for producing the return of the belt towards the top.

The inflection drums are located below the belt and at the entrance of the return drum to be able to make a modification in the angle of the exit and the entrance ensuring that the surface of the belt can come into contact with them and thus improve efficiency and performance .

The motor for its part can be located in the head , in the front part or in the center . Its power and characteristic will always depend on the type of tape that is being manufactured and the use that will be given to it.

  • Structure : includes the racks , some pieces on which the conveyor belt will move, which are formed by a metallic structure . They can vary in shape, height and length and must allow access to operators so that they can handle them. Another part is the chassis , the side rails and the plastic guides .

How does it work

The conveyor belt runs through its side which rotates continuously on drive rollers known by the name of drums which are located one in the head band and the other to the end. Depending on the length of the tape, auxiliary rollers may be added to maintain proper care. One of the drums is connected by means of a shaft to an electric motor which is responsible for giving it the necessary force to set it in motion.

The tape is moved by above the rollers and the drums rotating until reaching the final drum and then continues to perform the same movement but below until it can reach the drum head and then turning again on itself and thus continuously .

How to use

This type of belts are used by placing the product on its surface later moved from one place to another by means of the conveyor rollers . At the time of placing the load, the belt will start to work and the rotor to rotate causing the belt to rotate due to the friction that occurs between the rotor wheel and the belt causing it to move in the same direction .


Some elements that can function as accessories in this type of tapes are the following:

  • Impact stations that are structures that have pads for receiving the load.
  • Flat or corrugated transport systems .
  • Self-centering stations that are responsible for repositioning the belt.
  • Tension adjustment system for drums.
  • Automation system by means of electric elevators that regulate speed.


The belts or conveyor belts are a fundamental part of many factories and industries and for that reason they must be given adequate maintenance to maintain their constant and efficient operation . When the machine suffers some kind of breakdown, it is advisable to repair it as soon as possible and thereby prevent the production line from slowing down.

These machines must be properly washed using the correct brushes for this type of cleaning, which must have the ability to remove residues and solids that have been trapped in the belt. The pre-rinse is always necessary and then must be placed soap or some kind of chemical in the band which will then be removed using water. The conveyor belt must be allowed to dry and if it is still dirty it must be cleaned again . In the case of repair , it must be carried out onlyby qualified personnel and also control checks should be made to verify that the gears are always well greased and clean.

Importance of the conveyor belt

Conveyor belts are of great importance in the field of industry and commerce as they turn out to be one of the ideal and most widely used means by which cargo and materials can be transported from one place to another quickly and simple. They have allowed the systems for transporting products and raw materials to be automated , thereby making production more efficient and faster, improving times in production lines and reducing effort at the same time. which must be carried out by the operators, also reducing occupational risks .

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