A Republic is a form of organization of the State in which the government is in the hands of one or more persons which are selected by the popular vote and remain in office for periods of time determinaos. It is also the one in charge of representing the interests of the inhabitants. There are several types of Republics, among them we find the Constitutional Republic which is an important part of a democracy .
A Constitutional Republic is a type of State in which the head of the executive branch and the representatives are democratically elected by the people, and where the norms are established in a written constitution .
- What is the Constitutional Republic?
- Characteristics of the Constitutional Republic
- Examples of Constitutional Republic
What is the Constitutional Republic?
A Constitutional Republic is a type of State which can function following a system of separation of powers , in other words, the executive branch , the legislative branch , and the judiciary . In this type of Republic, the head is not any type of king or monarch but is elected by direct popular vote . It also has an independent administration , which means that none of the three powers of the Republic can act or exercise the powers that correspond to it at the same time.
The origin of the Republic dates back to ancient times in Ancient Greece, although it did not function in the same way as it does today. As a type of political theory, it originated as a response to opposition to the aristocracy and the monarchy, which is why it is considered that its origin occurred during the Middle Ages.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries , the meaning of republic was changing in parallel as a result of the growing resistance to absolutist regimes and wars and revolutions. As a result of these events, the term Republic came to refer to a form of government in which the leader was appointed periodically within the framework of a Constitution , unlike hereditary monarchies. With the passage of time, the term was adopted by many western countries, by the United Statesand the United Kingdom who decided to apply its principles, in the same way, managed to spread across America Central and South.
The first Constitutional Republic that existed in the world as such arose in the United States of America when the Constitution was ratified for the first time and with it, the creation of the executive power which was elected through popular vote, thus achieving establish a representative democracy as a form of government.
Characteristics of the Constitutional Republic
Among the most outstanding characteristics of the Constitutional Republic we find the following:
- The Head of State or President of the Republic, as well as some government officials, are elected by popular vote .
- All government representatives must follow the norms and laws that have been established in the Political Constitution .
- The Political Constitution in this type of State is responsible for limiting the power of the government.
- In it equality is given before the law since all inhabitants will have the same duties and rights.
- There is the division of powers and with this the hegemonic of power in a single individual is avoided.
- There is popular sovereignty because it is the people who are in charge of electing the representatives.
The constitutional Republic is organized into powers which are also divided so that they can fulfill their functions in a different and independent way with the aim of achieving that they have limits and that it is easier to moderate them . In this way, the Republic is divided into the following powers:
- Legislative power : it is represented by the President of the congress or parliament and this power is the one that has the function of elaborating , correcting , repealing or promulgating laws. It is also tasked with overseeing the way the government works.
- Executive power : it is considered as responsible for carrying out all the management that has to do with the legal affairs of the State, it is the one who represents the country at the international level and is also in charge of executing the policies taking into account the will of the people and the laws. It is a type of entity that must coordinate, plan and then execute actions, but it does not have the ability to legislate or administer justice systems.
- Judicial power: this power’s main objective is to be able to interpret the laws and to impart justice among the inhabitants, always seeking the solution of conflicts through the law. It is in charge of ensuring that the laws that are written within the Political Constitution are complied with.
One of the main advantages of enjoying a Constitutional Republic is that this type of government is representative , in other words, all its representatives are elected so that they can serve the common good . Being constitutional, everything that is done from and within the State must be based on the Political Constitution of the country. Having representatives in government also makes laws easier and more efficient, faster and better.
In it, the people have a voice and vote which is clearly exercised through popular votes . It is a means by which all human , civil and individual rights are protected. With the separation of powers in the government, it is possible for them to have limited power and at the same time not have the ability to rule over others, thus creating a good balance between them, which is beneficial for the people because they are achieved avoid abuses of authority .
It is a type of Republic that can be more expensive to function as it is necessary to use many resources to be able to function properly and this can be counterproductive in very underdeveloped countries. Another disadvantage is that in order to create a law , it must go through a series of processes that have been previously established, which causes delays, problems and even that the law is never promulgated.
In this type of system, the government can be made up of several groups or fractions, as they are elected by popular vote , a situation that can cause problems of interests and in many cases they forget that they must work for the common good.
Enjoying a Constitutional Republic is important because in addition to being one of the bases to achieve a rule of law, it turns out to be fundamental for freedom to exist because it is thanks to it that the powers into which the Republic is divided do not have the capacity to impose itself on others and in this way the establishment of an authoritarian regime is avoided . It is also important because it is an excellent way to assure the people that no person or political group will have absolute power in the country. It is an effective means by which the lawsof the country can be fulfilled and respected. With it, it is possible to have a better control of the activities carried out by governments and these in turn focus on the welfare of the people .
Examples of Constitutional Republic
Some examples of countries that have a Constitutional Republic are listed below:
- Republic of Iceland
- Costa Rica Republic
- Argentina republic
- Republic of Bolivia