Today, there are many types of equipment that with the passage of time and innovation have become indispensable in daily life. One of these teams is the computer , an invention that came to revolutionize the way of working , entertainment and communication . In fact, they are today the most popular devices in the world that work thanks to a complex operating system and perform a large number of important activities.
The computer is an electronic device that receives and processes a large amount of data in order to perform various operations. A group of circuits and components that execute sequences and operations quickly, orderly and systematically.
- Computer Features
- What is it for
- What was the first computer
- How a computer works
- Computer Examples
There are many features that can be found on a computer. Some of the most relevant are mentioned below:
- It is managed by means of an operating system that can be previously installed or that can be installed later.
- Its most important component is the CPU , also called the processor .
- It has the ability to perform different types of activities quickly and accurately.
- Can store and process large amounts of information
- It is programmed to do different logical and arithmetic operations .
- In some countries it is also known by the name of computer .
- It is considered one of the most important means of communication .
There are many parts that make up a computer. The main of them are mentioned below:
- Motherboard : it is a circuit to which all the components of the computer are connected and is responsible for distributing energy.
- CPU : It is the central processing unit and without it, the computer could not function.
- Graphics card : makes it possible for everything related to images to be processed so that they are sent to the monitor.
- RAM memory : it is the random access memory and it is where the temporary storage of the computer takes place.
- Hard disk : it is a storage medium that stores information even when the computer is turned off.
- Keyboard : it is one of the main parts because by means of which the data can be entered into the computer.
- Power cord – An electrical cord that supplies electrical current to the computer.
- Monitor : it is the computer screen and it is the one that can show all the information and images that are produced by means of a video card.
What is it for
A computer is a device that is used to store , in a fairly small space, a large amount of important information , which gives the ability to sort it depending on the user’s needs, facilitating their search when necessary. It is an ideal means to be able to retrieve information instantly and accurately and at the same time to transmit the information with other users in a secure way. It also serves as an effective means of communication , as a means of entertainment and education .
These devices were invented hundreds of years ago when the Second World War was being fought , even some historians consider that since the First World War , experts have already worked on them. It is considered that it was Jean Marie Jacquard , in the year 1804 he was one of the main pioneers for its later development.
The history of the computer is quite extensive and for its development there were a series of inventions that in fact go back to the time when the first rules of calculation began to be applied , when the first machines that managed to facilitate human life were invented . From that moment on, man sought different means to automate machines.
Joseph Marie Jacquar managed to create a punched card system and in 1822 , Charles Babbage , managed to use these cards to give shape and structure to a differential type calculating machine . In 1834 , this machine was improved by transforming it into analog equipment that had the ability to perform all arithmetic operations and store digits within a memory , he is considered the father of computing.
The history of the computer takes greater importance in the year 1947 when the first transistors were invented in the Bell laboratories, United States . Thanks to this invention, the first microchips were created . Later, in 1958, the first integrated circuits were created thanks to Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce .
In 1944 the first electromechanical type computer was created and a few years later, the first computer for commercial use was created , called the Ferranti Mark 1 . This was perhaps one of the most important events in the history of computing.
What was the first computer
The first electromechanical computer was invented in 1944 at Harvard University with the help of IBM . It was called Mark I and it was 15 meters long and 2.5 meters high.
For a better study of the computer, its history and development has been divided into different generations, each one characterized by different technological developments. These generations were:
First generation: vacuum tubes
It occurred between 1940 and 1956 and in this generation computer systems used a series of vacuum for circuits and magnetic drums in memory. They were very large and expensive equipment because they used a lot of electricity . They were based on machine language and only had the ability to solve one problem at a time.
Second generation: transistors
It took place between 1956 and 1963. Vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors that made it possible to reduce the size of the computer, making it faster and more energy efficient. They managed to go from cryptic binary language to symbolic language .
Third generation: integrated circuits
Its main development was the integrated circuit . Transistors were reduced in size and semiconductors were created that increased efficiency. They began to interact through keyboards and monitors and the operating system was added.
Fourth generation: microprocessors
It occurred between the years 1971 to the present. The microprocessor managed to be built on a single silicon chip and the components could be located in a central processing unit. In 1981 the first computer for home use was created and finally Apple created the Macintosh .
Fifth generation: artificial intelligence
This is the type of device that we use today and they are based on artificial intelligence . It is a generation that is constantly developing. Its objective is to develop devices that can respond to natural language and also have the ability to learn and organize themselves.
Today there are several types of computers which are adapted to the needs of the user.
- Desktop computer : is a type of personal computer whose size and characteristics are in a fixed location. It is widely used for work use in jobs.
- Quantum computer : this type of device is composed of a system of quantum circuits that have the ability to perform a series of complex calculations and that can also work in a state space.
- Personal computer : it is a microcomputer that meets the needs of the user.
- Supercomputers : these are very high-powered computers that specialize in specific functions. They are mainly used in the scientific field.
- Mainframe : It is a high-performance computer that can perform more complex data processing.
- Mini- computer: equipment with intermediate power and performance that can also allow access to several users.
- Workstation : in this case, the computer works as a means to run professional software.
How a computer works
Computers work thanks to a maze of microscopic transistors that have the ability to react to the presence of electrical impulses which pass through circuits . Use figures from the binary system , zeros and ones . Thanks to the different software programs , a group of instructions are created that tell the machine what to do.
Through the operating system , which is the most important program, it is possible to control the function of the computer and all the programs that comprise it. It also has a series of applications or programs which make it possible to carry out different types of tasks. This system is in charge of establishing the rules and parameters so that an interaction with the computer can be created. You also need a keyboard , a screen , memory and the processing unit or CPU .
The main advantages of computers are the following:
- They provide quick access to all kinds of information.
- It is an excellent work tool .
- It makes remote communication possible .
- Allows you to manipulate data to work.
- They are interactive and easy to use .
- The information can be kept safely and for a long time.
Some disadvantages that can occur with computers are:
- Its continuous use can cause different health problems .
- They can be expensive for many people.
- It can lead to long-term addiction .
- It is difficult to get everyone to have one so it can present a problem for some social groups .
Experts believe that the computers of the future will enjoy more benefits. Technological innovation will make it possible to reduce the size of electronic components , monitors will become large and high definition and will have cathode ray tube technologies which will allow the creation of liquid crystal monitors .
Many researchers are working to develop a type of brain interface to make it possible for the human brain to be linked to the computer. It also seeks to further increase the storage and transmission capacity of information.
Some examples of computers are:
- Smart phones