In the field of mathematics , different procedures have been created with the sole objective of facilitating work, since they have turned out to be easier to apply and to be more useful, mainly thanks to their efficiency and the simplicity of the processes. Within this group of mathematical processes we can find the compound rule of three, which is based on the relationship of quantities.
What is the compound rule of three?
The compound rule of three is a mathematical formula by means of which it is possible to solve problems in which the sentences are composed of several simple rules of three that are applied on different occasions.
- What does it consist of
- What is the compound rule of three for?
- Direct compound rule of three
- Inverse compound rule of three
- Mixed compound rule of three
- Other example exercises
What does it consist of
The compound rule of three consists of the use of a formula to be able to relate three or more quantities in such a way that the relationships established between the different quantities that are known yield accurate data on the quantity that is unknown. It is part of the group of rules of three which are responsible for simplifying the resolution of various mathematical problems in which there is a relationship of proportionality .
What is the compound rule of three for?
This rule is an operation that is used to calculate direct or inversely proportional quantities . It is a very simple way that serves to solve different proportionality problems that occur between three values of which the data is available and where there is also an unknown, what makes it possible is to establish a proportionality relationship between all the data.
Direct compound rule of three
The direct compound rule of three is the rule that is established in the quantities that have a directly proportional relation with respect to the quantity of which the values are not known . In this aspect, it is important to remember that two magnitudes can be directly proportional at the moment in which one is increased, as this causes the other to also increase, or otherwise, if one decreases the other will also increase.
This rule is composed of several rules of three simple that are applied successively. In order to solve a direct compound rule of three, the values of the known quantities must first be placed in the first column of the rule. In the first two columns, values of A or B. can be placed. The magnitude over which one of the values is unknown should be placed in the last column. For instance:
A 1 —— B 1 ——- C 1
A 2 —— B 2 —— x
Then, you must multiply in line values having magnitudes we do know and the result will be placed in a single column as follows:
A 1 * B 1 —— C 1
A 2 * B 2 —— x
As a result, a simple rule of three is finally obtained where X will be equal to a fraction in which the numerator will be formed by the multiplication of the numbers that are on the diagonal opposite the x and the denominator will be in charge of forming the quantity that will be located on the same diagonal where the x will be
X = (A 2 * B 2 * C 1 ) / (A 1 * B 1 )
An example of the rule application is shown below
In order to do manual work, 3 1.5-liter plastic bottles are filled with sand. Between all the bottles a weight of 7 kg is reached. How much will four two-liter bottles weigh then?
- The first step is to be able to identify the different magnitudes that are part of the problem, which are the number of bottles, their capacity and the total weight of the bottles. Then, the relationship of proportionality that exists between the unknown magnitude with those that are known is established.
3 bottles ——- 1.5 liters ——- 7 kg
4 bottles ——- 2 liters ——- x kg
- The next step will be to multiply the values found in the first two columns online so that the result is placed in a single column.
3 * 1.5 ——– 7 kg
4 * 2 ———- x kg
- The last step will be to calculate the x. To do this, we proceed to multiply the values that are diagonally opposite to x.
X = (4 * 2 * 7) / (3 * 1.5) = 56 / 4.5 = 12.44 kg
- The last step will be to establish the answer : in 4 bottles of 2 liters there will be a weight of 12.44 kg.
Inverse compound rule of three
In this type of rule, the magnitudes have a relationship that is inversely proportional to the magnitude of which we do not know the value. In order to solve it, the known values must be placed in the first and second column and in the last column, the value that we know of C and the one that we do not know, which we will call x.
A 1 —— B 1 ——- C 1
A 2 —— B 2 —— x
The next step will be to reverse the order of the values that the magnitudes have, in other words, the values located at the bottom will be placed at the top and vice versa.
A 2 —— B 2 —— C 1
A 1 —— B 1 ——- x
Then an online multiplication of the values corresponding to the quantities that we know is made and the result remains in the final column.
A 2 * B 2 —— C 1
A 1 * B1 —— x
Now we calculate the fraction in which the numerator will be formed by multiplying the quantities located on the opposite diagonal and the denominator will become the quantity located on the same diagonal as x.
X = (A 1 * B 1 * C 1 ) / (A 2 * B 2 )
An example to better understand the process is the following:
3 painters take 15 days to paint a mural if they work 8 hours a day. How many days can painters take if they work 7 hours a day?
- Step one: identify the magnitudes
- In the first column the number of painters will be placed, in the second the daily hours and the last column will be where the number of days and the unknown quantity are placed.
3 painters ———- 8 hours per day ——- 15 days
5 painters ———- 7 hours a day ——- x days
- Then the magnitudes are inverted as follows
5 painters ———- 7 hours a day ——- 15 days
3 painters ——— 8 hours per day ——- x days
- Multiplication of the values of the first two columns is performed
5 * 7 ——- 15 days
3 * 8 ——- x days
- Finally, the x is calculated:
X = (3 * 8 * 15) / (5 * 7) = 10.28 days
Mixed compound rule of three
To solve the mixed compound rule of three, the values of one of the known quantities must be placed in the first column, the values of the other known quantity in the second column, and the known and unknown values in the last column .
A 1 ——– B 1 ——– C 1
A 2 ——– B 2 ——– x
Then the order of the values is reversed :
A 2 ——– B 1 ——– C 1
A 1 ——– B2 ——– x
Subsequently, the values of the known quantities are multiplied online :
A 2 * B 1 ——- C 1
A 1 * B 2 ——- x
Finally, the x is calculated in the same way as in the previous exercises:
X = (A 1 * B 1 * C 1 ) / (A 2 * B 1 )
An example that we can carry out to make this operation clearer is the following
In order to cut the grass of a farm that measures 1500 m 2 , it is necessary that 5 laborers work for 1 hour. How long can 4 laborers take to cut the grass of a plot that measures a total of 3000 m 2 ?
5 pawns ——– 1500 m 2 ——– 1 hour
4 laborers ——– 3000 m 2 ——– x hours
The values are then inverted:
4 pawns ——– 1500 m 2 ——– 1 hour
5 pawns ——- 3000 m 2 ——– x hours
Then the values are multiplied online as follows:
4 * 1500 ——– 1 hour
5 * 3000 ——– x hours
The last step is to calculate the x:
X = (5 * 3000 * 1) / (4 * 1500) = 2.5 hours
Other example exercises
As examples we mention the following:
- Five bakers make 60 loaves in 15 days. If you want to make 150 loaves in 25 days. How many bakers should be hired? (5 bakers * 150 loaves * 25 days) / (60 loaves * 15 days) = 20,833. 21 bakers must be hired.
- For taking 5 kg to a town that is 60 km away, a company has charged me $ 9. How much will it cost me to send an 8 kg package 200 km away? (9 dollars * 8 kilos * 200 kilometers) / (5 kilos * 60 kilometers) = It will cost 48 dollars.
- In 9 days four teachers, working 5 hours each day, have earned a total of $ 1200. How much will ten teachers earn, in 10 days, working 6 hours a day? ($ 1200 * 10 teachers * 60 work hours) / (4 teachers * 45 work hours) = They will earn $ 4000.