The sciences that are responsible for studying the earth from the point of view of its structure, morphology, evolution and dynamics are many and are in constant change and evolution, among them we find meteorology. This is a science that is responsible for the study of atmospheric changes that occur in the different places that exist on earth by means of different tools. As a science, it is divided into several branches of study, among which we have climatology, which studies the past time in different parts of the planet.

What is climatology?

Climatology is a branch of the sciences of the earth that is responsible for conducting studies on climate and its different variations that occur over a certain chronological time.

  • What do you study
  • History
  • What is the weather for?
  • Branches
  • Basic concepts
  • Climatology in the world
  • How it differs from meteorology
  • Importance
  • Featured Climatologists
  • Books on climatology

What do you study

Climatology is the science that is responsible for studying the climate and its variations over time . Although it is very similar to the weather, your goal is different because it does not intend to immediate climate forecasts but attempts to study the characteristics climate to long term . It is important to remember that climate is the group of meteorological phenomena that characterize a place in a habitual way or a certain point on the planet.


With respect to the history of climatology we can differentiate several stages that were marked by their objectives , means and methods that were used in each of them. There is no exact date of the first stage or prescientific stage , but it is known that man always wanted to know the climate, although at that time the climate was viewed from a religious sense . The second age or the ancient age of empirical science , focused on studying climatology as a science of time and originated in Greece . After these two stages there were a series ofinventions in humanity including some made by the Italian Evangelista Torricelli invented the barometer of mercury discovering him the atmospheric pressure and calculating its value .

In the seventeenth century the thermometer was invented which helped to improve measurements. In itself, the emergence of climatology as a science dates back to the 19th century . Among its main precursors we can mention Julius Hann who published manuals on science and the naturalists August Grisebach and Augustin Pyramus de Candolle who tried to make climatic classifications using vegetation . In the early twentieth century , it was when climatology really developed as a science, with the development of aviationand with the launch of artificial satellites , the study of meteorology and, together with it, climatology would take an important step that made it possible to carry out studies on the highest layers of the atmosphere and on the different phenomena of atmospheric circulation .

What is the weather for?

Climatology is a science used to describe the climate with respect to its averages and extremes . It studies the way in which the climate can change and also helps to determine the way in which the climate can affect other processes and activities carried out by human beings. It also serves to study the interactions that occur between the atmosphere , biosphere , lithosphere and hydrosphere and how the climate can affect architecture , agriculture , hydrology , thehealth and well – being of an entire community.


To carry out the different studies of climatology there are different branches or methods that are fundamental:

  • Analytical climatology : it is the one that is based on the statistical analysis of the characteristics that are considered most significant of the climate of a place. Through it, the mean values of the atmospheric elements can be established and the possibility of reaching some specific extreme values ​​can also be established.
  • Dynamic climatology : it is the one that provides us with a dynamic and overall vision regarding the variable manifestations that are registered in the atmosphere seen as a physical unit. It is an explanation that is made mathematically about the atmosphere using the laws of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics .
  • Synoptic climatology : it is the branch of climatology that consists of the analysis of the configuration that is made on the atmospheric elements in a three-dimensional space , at a specific time and at specific hours with respect to their evolution.
  • Bioclimatology: also known as Phytoclimatology , it is a science that is responsible for studying the reciprocity that occurs between the climate and the distribution that living beings have on earth, in other words, it looks for a way to explain the relationship that exists It is between living beings and the climate. In his study, he uses a number of bioclimatic variants that include gold climates, regional climates, meso climates or local climates, and microclimates.
  • Micro climatology : studies the characteristics of a local climate depending on the area of where it is located. It is a group of atmospheric patterns and processes that are characteristic of a certain environment and is made up of topography , temperature , humidity , altitude , light, and vegetation cover.
  • Paleo climatology : its main objective is to study the different characteristics of the climate on earth throughout its history . It also studies the climatic variations, what causes them and tries to make an adequate description of the climate at a certain moment in the history of the earth.
  • Regional climatology : it is the branch of climatology that is responsible for conducting climate studies in a specific region of the planet.

Basic concepts

The basic concepts that are related to climatology are the following:

  • Climate : refers to the average of the atmospheric conditions in a certain period.
  • Weather : they are the atmospheric conditions that occur in a certain hour or day.
  • Temperature : is the degree of heat in the air.
  • Air humidity : it is the amount of vapor that is in the air and depends on the proximity to the sea and the temperature.
  • Precipitation : refers to the fall of water that comes from the clouds.
  • Cloudiness : it is the highest state of the atmosphere in which the sky is covered with clouds.
  • Pressure : it is the weight of the air on the surface of the earth.
  • Wind : horizontal movements of air masses.

Climatology in the world

  • Argentina : it is characterized by its diversity which is caused by its extensive surface , its longitudinal and latitudinal amplitudeand by its altitudinal development, which covers from 108 m below sea level to the highest point on Earth outside the Asian system. of the Himalayas.
  • Mexico : the climate is very varied . The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. On the south side of the 24th parallel, temperatures are constant throughout the year and vary solely as a function of elevation . In the northern part of the country there is less precipitation than in the south.
  • Spain : this country has a great diversity of climates that range from mild and cool temperatures to extremely hot temperatures during the summer. Its temperatures increase from north to south and the thermal amplitude is greater in the Mediterranean . In Spain we find the typical Mediterranean climate, the cold winter , the dry and the subtropical climate .

How it differs from meteorology

Meteorology is the science that is responsible for studying the atmosphere and meteors , climatology is the set of conditions typical of a given climate . Although both are sciences, they are different. The weather can be applied to short periods of time, is predicting Weather day, while the weather is a science that applies to long periods of time and is further supported by a number of historical data , it is much more descriptive and also defines the different characteristics that has a certain place.


The importance of climatology lies in the fact that through it you can know the characteristics of the climate in a certain region and you can know how the climate has changed in the place according to history . It is a fundamental branch in the field of agriculture since it is possible to determine the influence that the climatic elements can exert in a certain region in relation to the cultivation of a certain product, allowing to improve agricultural systems . In addition, it is a good means of prevention against possible catastrophes , since it allows to know in advance the weather conditions of a certain region.

Featured Climatologists

Some important climatologists who have dedicated themselves to the study of this area are:

  • Florentino Ameghino
  • Richard alley
  • Kevin Anderson
  • Raymond S. Bradley
  • Harold E. Brooks
  • Mark Cane
  • Kerry Emanuel

Books on climatology

Some important books on this science are:

  • Fundamentals of climatology.
  • Meteorology Technical Guide.
  • The Book of Time.
  • Climate changes.
  • Climate History: from the Big Bang to Climate Catastrophes.

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