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Chess

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The games are those types of games that can be performed on a flat surface or on a board and they can engage one or more persons. There are a wide variety of board games but one of the most interesting and that requires a high level of mental concentration is chess , a game of great skill and logical reasoning.

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What is chess?

Chess is a type of board game that takes place on a board in which two people face each other by means of pieces that can be moved by the same following a series of rules and movements in order to defeat the rival.

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What does it consist of

Chess is a game that takes place between two players on opposite sides of a board which is made up of a total of 64 different colored squares . Each of these players have a total of 16 pieces in his possession a king , one queen , two bishops , 8 perones and 2 horses . The main idea is to be able to mobilize the pieces to make a king checkmate.

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Chess history

Chess was invented in 200 BC with the aim of representing a particular battle , after this fight was over, chess was forgotten and re-emerged in the 7th century AD with a series of new rules . At the beginning it was known by the name of Xiang Qi (elephant game) so little by little it lost the true meaning of its creation. By the end of the 15th century the game had changed many times and even survived censorship by the church.

In the year 1880 , the game managed to develop into a modern game and was given greater importance, a time that was known as the ” Romantic Era of Chess .” Over time, it became more competitive , with specific rules and better strategic planning . In 1886 the first chess tournament was held and it became increasingly popular throughout the world.

Chess features

Its main characteristics are:

  • It is considered as a scientific game and a mental sport.
  • It is played on a board with 64 squares .
  • It is considered as a sport and as a war game.
  • It is seen as a sports discipline in approximately 156 countries.
  • It’s fun and it’s governed by rules .
  • It must only be played between two players .
  • Players have a total of 16 pieces each.
  • It is played in turns and victory is achieved by means of a checkmate .

Who invented it

It is believed that the true inventor of chess was Commander Hán Xin , in 200 BC

How to play

In order to play chess, it is first necessary to have the pieces and the board , then, you must understand all the types and values ​​of pieces that there are as well as the types of movements that they may have. It is important that the pieces are mobilized in order to be able to capture pieces of the opponent always defending the same time own pieces. In addition, the most important thing is to get one of them to attack the king in order to provoke a check play .

Fundamentals

Regarding the fundamentals, there are three very important elements that must be evaluated with precision, the position , the material and the time . The value of the pieces is also important but these change depending on the movement of the pieces. Perhaps the main one is check , an expression used to indicate that the king is being the victim of an attack.

Chess rules

The rules to be followed in chess are the following:

  • The rook can only move straight , horizontally or vertically , nor can it jump over other pieces.
  • The bishop can only move in a straight diagonal line.
  • The queen can make her move with combined moves between the rook and the bishop.
  • The horse moves by taking a first step in a horizontal or vertical direction and then a diagonal step in an outward direction.
  • The pawn moves forward .
  • The king can be moved one square in any direction.
  • The moment the king is captured by an opponent’s piece, the king is then said to be in check .
  • The player can leave the game and with this give the win to his opponent.
  • When the players have run out of material to be able to make a check , it is ruled that the game has ended in a draw .
  • When a player, although not in check, does not have the ability to make a move that is legal , it is concluded in a draw .
  • If after a total of 50 times the game has not ended, then the game ends in a draw .
  • The moment a player touches one of his pieces, he must move that same piece without exception.

Phases

The first phase in a chess match is known as the opening , this is the beginning of the game where the players begin to move the pieces looking for useful positions. These openings are cataloged according to the Chess Openings Encyclopedia and are not a linear and unique sequence, but rather a branching type.

The main objective of the openings is to place the most useful pieces in places where they can generate an impact , control the central squares for greater movement, give security to the king and structure the role of the pawns . The following openings may exist:

  • Games open
  • Games closed
  • Semi- open games
  • Indian defenses
  • Games semienclosed
  • Flank openings

The next phase is known as the midgame , in this case the opening is over and plans to attack and defend must be created based primarily on position and tactics. It is important here to understand whether it is convenient to change parts or not. Finally, we find the final phase where there are very few pieces left on the board, here the pawns must move better because they are more important like the king since they do not face so many threats.

Competitions

Some very recognized world-wide competitions of this sport are the following:

  • World chess championship
  • Shamkir Chess
  • Dortmund
  • Tata Steel Chess
  • Gibraltar International Chess Festival
  • Prague International Chess Festival

Techniques

The basic chess techniques are mentioned below:

  • Openings : these are the initial movements in a game and take into account that a knight can do more damage than a bishop, so it is important to give more importance to its position.
  • Pawns : it is important that they are taken to the center from the beginning always making them advance with protection, for this you can use knights and bishops . This is a type of defensive combination.
  • Control the open columns of the towers : you should try to place the towers in an open column that is not occupied by the rival, when it is possible to place both in the same column, the technique of ” doubling the towers ” will be used.
  • The queen should never be removed when the game starts as it will be exposed to attack.
  • The pawns are not to anticipate too much because it will be very difficult to protect you and will miss with this exchange of pieces.

Movements

The movements that can be made while playing chess are:

  • The king : a square can be moved in any direction but it can never be placed on a square pointing at an enemy piece.
  • Bishop : move diagonally in any direction of the same color.
  • Horse : can move in an L shape.
  • The queen : you can move in a straight line as many squares as necessary.
  • Tower : it moves in the shape of a cross either horizontally or vertically .
  • Pawns : these pieces can be moved one step forward but can also move two squares if they haven’t moved yet.

There are also several types of special moves:

  • Promotion : this move is known as a coronation and is made when a pawn manages to reach the end of the board to become a queen, rook or bishop.
  • Castling : this type of movement is made in order to protect the king. It is carried out between the king and a rook as long as none of the pieces involved in it have yet been mobilized and when there is no piece between them.
  • Capture on the go : pawns participate in this movement and , when they have not yet moved, they can take one or two steps forward.

Board

The chess board is made up of a total of 64 squares of the same size which are arranged in eight rows and eight columns . These boxes must alternate between black and white . They can be manufactured using different types of materials and each of the boxes has a defined name with which it is possible to keep a good record of the game.

The rows should be enumerated in the 1 to the eight starting with the soft board side to the black side. In the columns , a lowercase letter is placed that goes from “a” to “h” and they are placed from left to right. The pieces must be placed on the black and white sides in the same way.

Famous chess players

Among the most famous chess players are:

  • Robert Fischer – USA
  • José Raúl Capablanca – Cuba
  • Anatoly Karpov – USSR
  • Magnus Carlsen – Norway
  • Emanuel Lasker – Germany
  • Alexander Alekhine – USSR / France

Curiosities

Some curiosities of chess are the following:

  • The chess pawn symbolizes an infantryman who moves on foot.
  • The knight and the bishop are considered as pieces of less material value since they have little scope on the board.
  • Several psychological studies have been done on people who play chess defining them as kind, outgoing, responsible, with a high level of concentration and a bit neurotic.
  • The bishop is the symbol of an army officer with a middle position and is also known in some places as ” the bishop .”
  • A chess game can last more than 60 minutes.

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