The brain is one of the organs that together with the spinal cord make up the central nervous system of vertebrates. It represents the largest mass of the nervous system and is protected by the cavity of the skull . The brain is surrounded by three membranes called: dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater. This is in charge of the neurochemical transaction of the body . Thanks to the brain, the organism generates thought, beliefs, memories, behaviors, moods, the development of language and mathematical operations, the coordination of the five senses and also the coordination of respiratory and cardiac functions. digestive systems, among others vital for the physical and cognitive development of the human being.


What is the brain?

The brain is the most important nerve mass in the central nervous system . It is located within the skull and is made up of three parts: forebrain, midbrain, and rhombencephalon. The brain controls all the vital functions of the body and all the emotions we feel ; It is also in charge of receiving and interpreting the signals that come from the senses, from cognitive functions, such as memory, creativity, language development and the handling of numerical operations.

  • Brain characteristics
  • Parties
  • Features
  • Structure of the brain
  • Where the brain is located
  • Importance

Brain characteristics

Of the most representative characteristics of the brain, we can mention the following:

  • It is part of the central nervous system.
  • It is a nerve mass located within the skull in humans and in most vertebrate animals.
  • It is surrounded by three membranes called: dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater .
  • It is made up of three organs that are: the brain, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata .
  • Its weight can be calculated between 1.4 and 1.5 kilograms depending on the age and weight.
  • It is made up of more than 100,000 million neurons .


The human brain can be divided into three parts : forebrain, midbrain, and rhombencephalon.

  • The forebrain is composed of:
    • The telencephalon , a cerebral cortex that is responsible for learning and language. The telencephalon is made up of:
      • The occipital lobe that is responsible for the sense of vision,
      • The parietal lobe that is responsible for the sense of touch and the kinesthetic,
      • The temporal lobe that handles the senses of smell and taste,
      • The frontal lobe that is responsible for matters related to judgment, perception and the motor zone,
      • The cortex that is responsible for language development,
      • The striatum,
      • The rhinencephalon.
    • The diencephalon , a part of the brain located between the telencephalon and the midbrain. It is made up of:
      • The epithalamus that contains the pineal gland that produces melatonin;
      • The thalamus that controls all sensations;
      • The subthalamus, the part that connects the thalamus and the hyporthalamus;
      • The hypothalamus that regulates emotions ( Limbic System ) and physical control.
  • The midbrain, also known as the midbrain, is the one that filters and transmits information between the rhombencephalon and the forebrain. It is formed by four quadrigeminal tubers; two upper ones related to the sense of sight and two lower ones related to the sense of hearing.
  • The rhombencephalon , part of the brain whose function is to control body movements, muscle energy and basic vital functions such as circulation, respiration, among others. It is made up of two structures:
    • The metancephalon , composed of:
      • The cerebellum, which controls movement, energy, and posture;
      • The annular pons or bridge of Varolius, which connects the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord with the cerebellum and the two hemispheres of the brain.
    • The myelencephalon , composed of:
      • The brainstem or brainstem, which controls basic vital functions such as blood circulation and respiration.


The brain fulfills important vital functions for the maintenance of the human body and its cognitive development . Among the functions, the following may be mentioned:

  • Carry out the neurochemical transaction of the body.
  • Conduct information from the brain to the body and receive information from the body through the spinal cord.
  • Coordinate the functioning of the body’s physiological processes.
  • Regulate thirst, hunger, sleep, sexual functioning, and other mental processes.
  • Participate in processes of logical reasoning, creativity , learning processes, memorization, production of emotions, feelings and behavior management.
  • Allow the human being to perform numerical operations .
  • Interpret the stimuli received by the senses.
  • Coordinate motor and cognitive processes related to language.
  • Regulate processes of the respiratory, cardiac, digestive system and processes related to muscle motor skills.
  • Coordinate the five senses .
  • Determine the state of mind, consciousness and alertness in human beings.

Structure of the brain

The brain can be structured in three parts that are:

  • The forebrain , made up of the telencephalon and the diencephalon.
  • The brain stem , consisting of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
  • The cerebellum that is attached to the spinal cord.

Where the brain is located

The brain is located inside the skull.


The importance of the brain lies in the functions it fulfills through its three main organs, the brain, the cerebellum and the brain stem .

The importance of the brain is in the functions of reception, transmission and analysis of information as well as hormonal regulation and gland control . These are of importance to the life of every human being.

The cerebellum is important because the coordination of movement and balance depends on this organ . And finally, the brain stem is another element that gives vital importance to the human body because it is responsible for the activity of the lungs, the heart and some digestive functions .

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