In the world of aviation , many aircraft have been built for the benefit of passengers and cargo. One of them is known as the King of the Skies , the Boeing 747 that revolutionized air travel when it made its commercial debut in 1970 , allowing travelers to go further than ever, faster than ever, and possibly with more style than ever. And more than 50 years after its manufacture, its design legacy lives on in contemporary aircraft and in the hearts of aviation enthusiasts around the world.
The Boeing 747 was an aircraft that was introduced to the world of aviation in 1988 that managed to become over time the symbol of commercial aviation worldwide that was also designed with a military design .
- Boeing 747 features
- Boeing 747 design
- How many passengers can fit
- How much
- Boeing 747 accidents
Boeing 747 features
Among the main characteristics that can be observed in this impressive aircraft are those that made it unique in the world.
- It is a commercial transcontinental type aircraft manufactured with a fairly wide body.
- It is powered by a total of four Pratt & Whitney brand turbofan engines .
- The second floor of the plane is an icon of world aviation and is what makes it easy to recognize among the other planes that exist in the world because it is shaped like a hump.
- Thanks to their hydraulics and main landing gear , they provide a very soft and safe landing , in case the wheels burst.
- They have the ability to land on common runways thanks to three-layer control surfaces that reduce speed on landings.
- She is often known by her original nickname, Jumbo Jet or Queen of the Skies .
Specifications of Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 specifications were as follows:
- It has a space in the cabin for the crew of three people .
- Its length is 66 meters.
- It has a wingspan of 64 meters .
- Its height is 3 meters.
- The cruising speed of this aircraft at an altitude of 35,000 feet is Mach (relative speed) 0.89, in other words 945 kilometers per hour.
- It has a maximum fuel storage capacity of 380 liters .
- Used an engine Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7th and Rolls-Royce RB211-524D4 .
- Its cruising speed is 493 knots while the maximum speed is 528 knots.
- It has a maximum takeoff weight of 397,000 kg.
The idea of making a giant passenger plane emerged in 1965 , after Boeing lost a competition to build a large military transport for the Air Force of the United States . Encouraged by Pan Am, which wanted bigger planes for its overseas routes, Boeing adapted its military plans and changed them to be able to carry people . This is how design work began and in 1966 , Pan Am commissioned a total of 25 aircraft from the company . This is how 747 was born.
On September 30, 1968 , the first Boeing 747 managed to leave the assembly located at the Everett plant. Its first flight was made on February 9, 1969 with pilots Jack Waddel and Brien Wygle , who were in charge of the controls and Jess Wallick , who was the flight engineer . Its first flight with passengers was ready to take place on a route for the Pan Am airline, a flight that would take off from New York and go to London However, that day the engines overheated and the flight was delayed for six hours.
At present , airlines are sending their fleets of 747 to the retreat in cemeteries aviation southwestern United States. The plane has completely disappeared from American airlines . Outside of the United States, classic 747-400s can still be flown with British Airways , Virgin Atlantic, Thai Airways , KLM , Qantas and Lufthansa . However, in the next few years they will disappear.
Boeing 747 design
The aircraft was conceived as a multifunctional aircraft , which could be used to transport passengers as well as cargo . With the future in mind and with the idea of supersonic aircraft in mind, the 747 was designed with a raised nose and a hinge at the top that allowed even large cargo items to be quickly loaded and unloaded. However, the cockpit was in the way, so the designers decided to add the hump and put the cockpit in place . The most streamlined design turned out to be a teardrop humpand that gave the 747 its top tier .
The Boeing 747 was the first aircraft equipped with turbofan engines with high bypass . These are low-bypass turbofans, which produce more jet thrust relative to the fan thrust. This made them quieter , more powerful and more fuel efficient .
With the passage of time, several types of variants of the Boeing 747 were built, these were:
- 747-100 : it was the first variant and began to operate in January 1970 . The first airline to buy this variant was Pan American World Airlines .
- 747-100b : This variation of the Boeing 747 had engines which made it more powerful and with greater range . Only 9 aircraft of this type were built in the history of the Boeing 747.
- 747-200 – This design was smaller and similar to the 747-100 lb. These models were different because, despite being created around the same time, the 200 had many improvements that improved its production.
- 747-300 : in this case, the aircraft had a top cover so long .
- 747-100SR : This design is also known as the “ 747 Short Range ”. It has a capacity to transport a total of 570 passengers in a single class. This aircraft was built for the Japanese market with the aim of being able to solve the problem of oversaturation in its flights and it had also been designed only for short flights.
- 747-8i: it was released on November 14, 2005. It was an aircraft built with the aim of maintaining competition in aircraft that could carry more than 400 passengers. This type of aircraft is considered one of the most advanced designs and has the capacity to carry 16% more passengers than the 747-400 version.
- 747-400 : This type of aircraft is considered a more advanced long-range model. It has 900 kg engines of thrust , a two-seater cockpit and its instruments are all digital . It also has an auxiliary fuel tank and winglets.
How many passengers can fit
The Boeing 747 was designed to have the capacity to carry a maximum total of 550 people
This type of aircraft has a price of around 350 million euros , which is equivalent to about 400 million dollars .
Boeing 747 accidents
There have been several accidents that the Boeing 747 airplane has had, some of the most outstanding are mentioned in the following list.
- In 1974 the plane’s first such accident occurred when Lufthansa airline flight 540 crashed shortly after taking off from the Kenyan capital, Nairobi. A total of 59 people died due to an operator error.
- In 1977 , what has been considered the worst accident in the history of aviation occurred when two Boeing 747 planes , one from KLM and the other from Pan Am Airways , collided on the runway of Los Rodeos airport located in the Canary Islands. , Spain . This accident left a total of 583 people dead .
- On 31 August 1983 , a Boeing 747 Korean Air, was shot down by a fighter plane the Air Force Soviet . All passengers and crew died.
- On December 29, 1991 , the China Airlines flight took off from Taiwan Airport for Anchorage. Just four minutes after takeoff, there were problems in both engines . They tried to swerve to land however they hit a hill.
- On July 17, 1996 , a plane heading to Paris exploded while ascending after taking off from John F. Kennedy International Airport . All the people on board died that day.
- On May 25, 2002, a China Airlines plane disintegrated in mid-air while on its way to Hong Kong after taking off from Taipei.
The Boeing 747 was a very important plane because it represented a true revolution at the time of travel , it made travel more accessible to people because its prices were much lower and from a technological point of view , it represented in its time one of the engines with the highest power and speed of the moment.