The concept of biocenosis indicates the set of living beings that inhabit or exist in a certain space called the biotope . The biotope is the one that has the function of providing and satisfying all the needs of its inhabitants so that they can survive, for example, light, water and food. This type of space can vary depending on the geographical space in which it is located and is subject to constant changes, although some of them may remain the same way for many years. It is also known as a biological , ecological or biotic community. The biotic community is the grouping of species that inhabit a certain biotope since it has the capacity to provide the needs that the species present.


What is biocenosis?

The biocenosis indicates groups of living creatures into a biotope , which is part of the ecosystem that serves to meet all needs with its inhabitants in order to survive, such as water, electricity and food. It is a biological, ecological or biotic community .

  • History of biocenosis
  • Elements of biocenosis
  • Limits
  • Biocenosis in the Tundra
  • Marine Biocenosis

History of biocenosis

The German scientist and biologist Karl Möbius (1825-1908) was the one who originally established the concept of biocenosis in 1877 . Möbius firmly believed that the study of living organisms could not focus only on the different types of individuals that existed in the environment, but that it was also necessary to carry out an analysis with respect to the set of living beings that inhabited the environment.


Elements of biocenosis

The main element of biocenosis are living beings that inhabit an ecosystem . These grouped living beings make up the biological populations that are located in a certain area. An important element to classify the biocenosis is the climate , as well as the structure and composition of the community,keeping in mind that the relationships between species and the environment play an important role. The type of species that inhabit the place is also another key element, since the importance of these species within the community under study must be verified. The succession of species is an important element, all communities undergo changes at some point and some remain the same for years, decades or centuries. These successions originate due to changes in the environment , such as humidity, temperature, earth movements, or the arrival of new opportunistic organisms.that give rise to a series of competencies in which the one that best adapts to the different conditions prevails. There are also a series of elements that limit it, such as physical , climatic and biological barriers . These barriers that arise between two or more different communities are known as ecotones.


There is no species on earth that occupies a single area of ​​distribution. The extension that species have around the earth is known by the name of geographical distribution and the type of environment in which they develop is called ecological distribution . This ecological distribution is closely related to its past.

Biocenosis in the Tundra

The tundra is an area where snow occurs constantly. Being such a heavy climate, there are no trees. The soil is permanently in the form of ice, which we know as permafrost.  Its temperatures are around -15 ° C and 5 ° C and there is practically no rain. These extreme climatic factors are what cause the ecosystems of the tundra to be very limited. The Arctic tundra is located in the Northern Hemisphere , surrounded by snow and coniferous forests . Alpine tundras are located in the highest mountains of the Alps, and in the southern hemispherewe did not find any type of tundra. In some moments when the thaw occurs, puddles are formed that allow the reproduction of some insects and in summer large numbers of mosquitoes inhabit the area. These insects are responsible for the presence of a large number of migratory birds during the time when there is no ice, as they arrive at the place knowing that there is plenty of food.

Marine Biocenosis

The sea is one of the places where we can find a great variety of living beings according to the area in which they live. These groups of marine animals can be classified into three large groups:  plankton, nekton and benthos . The plankton are tiny creatures such as algae, protozoa and small crustaceans . The necton consists of medium – sized animals can swim in the water, such as jellyfish, fish and sea turtles. The bento is made up of the animals that inhabit the ocean floor. Marine biocenosis is important for other living things that inhabit the land, as it is an important source of food. It is important to maintain an adequate balance of the planet and avoid marine over- exploitation .

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