The **Bernoulli principle** , **equation** Bernoulli or **Trinomio** Bernoulli as it is also known can be regarded as a statement on the **principle** of **conservation** of **energy** for fluid flow. The qualitative behavior often labeled with the term *“Bernoulli effect”* is the **decrease** of the **pressure** of the **fluid** in the regions where the velocity of the flow increases. This decrease in pressure consists of a **narrowing** of the **trajectory**of flow that may seem contradictory, but not so much when pressure is considered as **energy density** .

## What is the Bernoulli principle?

The **Bernoulli principle** is an **equation** that describes how to behave having a **fluid** that moves along a **power line** and tells us that in an **ideal fluid** the energy remains **constant** in its **path** .

- What is Bernoulli’s principle?
- Who proposed it
- History
- Statement
- Characteristics of Bernoulli’s principle
- Formula
- Explanation
- Applications of Bernoulli’s principle
- Experiments
- Examples
- Conclution

## What is Bernoulli’s principle?

The **Bernoulli principle** is the direct application of the principle that talks about the **energy conservation** which tells us that if the **fluid** does not exchange **energy** with the **outside** , then must remain **constant** . Take into account the only three types of energy that a fluid has and that can change from one point to another at the time of **conduction** . These types are **kinetic energy** , **gravitational ****potential ****energy,** and **hydrostatic** energy .

## Who proposed it

Bernoulli’s principle was proposed by **Daniel Bernoulli** in 1726 in his work called **Hydrodynamics** .

## History

The history of the principle of Bernoulli originates in the year 1598 when **Benedetto Castelli** refuted the way of measuring the flow in rivers by **Giovanni Fontana** , because according to the speed one had to take into account. In 1625, Castelli established the equation that bears his name (Q = AV). **Galileo ****Galilei** proposed that bodies experience a **uniform acceleration** when falling into a vacuum. **Isaac ****Newton** said that water has an effective fall inside a tank and finally **Daniel ****Bernoulli** was in charge of explaining and clarifying the enigma of the **double column,** giving rise to its principle.

## Statement

Bernoulli’s principle establishes the following: *“within a horizontal flow of fluid, the points of higher velocity of the fluid will have lower pressure than those of lower velocity “* .

## Characteristics of Bernoulli’s principle

The main characteristics of Bernoulli’s principle are the following:

- Each of the terms in the
**equation**of this principle have**units**of**length**and represent different forms of energy. - It can be seen as a form of the
**law**of**conservation**of energy. - It allows to explain phenomena related to the
**acceleration of fluids**. - The equation is applied in
**fluid dynamics**. - One of its direct consequences is known as the
**Bernoulli****effect**.

## Formula

The formula for Bernoulli’s principle is as follows:

**P _{1} + (1/2) ρv _{1 }^{2} + ρgh _{1} = P _{2} + (1/2) ρv _{2 }^{2} + ρgh _{2}**

Formula in which the variables P _{1} , v _{1} , h _{1} , refer to the **pressure** , the **velocity** and the **height** of the **fluid** respectively. The variables P _{2} , v _{2} h _{2} refer to the pressure, the speed and the height of the **point w. ** To apply the equation, the following assumptions must be made:

**Viscosity**(internal friction) = 0 That is, the current line on which it is applied is considered to be located in a non-viscous place in the fluid.**Constant flow****Incompressible fluid**– ρ is constant

## Explanation

Bernoulli’s principle tells us that for an **ideal fluid** along a **conduit** that is closed, the **energy** remains **constant** . Describe then, the way to behave that can have a liquid that is at **rest** and that moves along a **stream** of water. The principle explains that in a **regime of circulation** of a fluid in a **closed conduit** , the energy that this fluid has remains **constantly** throughout its path.

## Applications of Bernoulli’s principle

Some of the applications of this principle are as follows:

- The
**chimneys**are built high to take advantage of the fact that the**wind****speed**is more constant and higher at higher altitudes. The higher the speed of the wind over the mouth of a chimney, the lower the pressure will be and the**difference**in**pressure**will be greater between the base and the mouth of the chimney, so the**combustion gases**will be better extracted. - When we decrease the
**cross**–**sectional area**of a**pipe**to increase the velocity of the fluid passing through it, the pressure will decrease. - When the
**hands**of the**swimmer**cut water generating a**lower pressure**and**higher propulsion**. - In a
**carburetor**of**car**, the air pressure in the body decreases when the carburetor passes through a**throttle**. When the pressure decreases then the gasoline**flows**,**vaporizes**and**mixes**with the air stream. - In
**oxygen therapy**, most delivery systems use**Venturi**devices , which are based on Bernoulli’s principle.

## Experiments

There are several experiments that can be performed to prove Bernoulli’s principle, some of them are as follows:

- When a
**stream**of**air**passes through a**curved surface**, that stream tries to follow the curve over the object with which it makes contact. - The
**air**passing between the**two**soda**cans**, the two**sheets of paper**or the two**balloons**, generates an attraction in the objects. What you might expect is that these objects will be pushed aside or repelled. - Another experiment can be done by making
**holes**at different**heights**in a plastic**bottle**, temporarily covered with electrical**tape**and the bottle is filled with water and the bottle is not covered. When the tape is removed, the water is seen to flow**perpendicular**to the**surface**of the bottle.

## Examples

Some examples of where we can observe the principle are:

- Chimneys and Pipes
- Car carburettors
- In swimming
- Venturi devices and in aviation

## Conclution

As a conclusion, we can make a **description** of the **fluids** that move along a line of current and also that in a closed conduit, the **energy** that a certain fluid has will always remain **constant** while it travels.