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Baroque art

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The Baroque art is an important movement Cultural and artistic covering political, aspects social and religious . It is considered as a continuation of Italian mannerism , which managed to survive until the middle of the 16th century. It is one of the most complicated styles that manifests agitation and movement in each of his works.

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What is baroque art?

Baroque art is considered a style art that developed between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which is shown in different disciplines arts such as architecture, painting, music and literature, characterized by ornamentation so excessive.

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Characteristics of baroque art

Among the main characteristics and features that we can observe in Baroque art we can mention the following.

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  • It seeks to represent inner feelings , passions, way of thinking and different emotions.
  • His themes include religious topics that had been abandoned by Recentism.
  • It has a sense of movement , energy, and tension.
  • The lights and shadows of his art have strong contrasts.
  • His spirituality is intense and is based on martyrdoms and apparitions.
  • Try to represent space and perspective in a correct way .
  • His paintings are based on naturalism .
  • The themes of Baroque sculpture are profane and mythological .
  • They used nudes continuously, giving them great importance.
  • It has strength and monumentality , dynamism and expressiveness.

Origin of baroque art

The baroque art that originated first within the area of plastic arts and then extended to literature, theater and music. It had its origin in Italy during the seventeenth century and managed to spread to places like Belgium , Holland and even Latin America , a place where it was introduced by artists who traveled on expeditions from Europe . Art emerged within a political and religious scene in Europe expressing the spirituality and theocentrism of the Middle Ages using rationalism and anthropocentrism typical of the Renaissance.

Story

We can say that Baroque art began in the year 1600 and lasted until 1750, in the middle of what we know as the Renaissance and the Neoclassical period , a time in which Catholicism in Europe reacted against different cultural movements that created a new science. and a new religion; the Protestant Reformation . When corruption entered the Catholic Church, they realized that art could be used as a means of propaganda and control of ideas, so they dedicated themselves to hiring artists to satisfy their faithful through drama . As an art style, it emerged in the early 18th and 19th centuries in Italy and then it spread across Europe.

Importance of baroque art

This is one of the most important periods in Western history since it contributed to the construction of the European identity that sought a way to escape from the classicism that came from the Renaissance. In addition, it played an important role in the religious conflicts that occurred at the time as it faced the Protestants who built simple and humble buildings for the cults with elegant, majestic and complex constructions, it could be said that Baroque art acted as the expression aesthetics of the Counter-Reformation.

Architecture in baroque art

Curved lines were adopted instead of straight lines in architecture to achieve a greater degree of dynamism and expressiveness . For them the facades were very important and they adorned them with great decorations by means of Greek and Roman cornices and columns . It can be said that it was a style of architectural decoration. The temples were built using circular plants instead of straight ones. In Spain , it was introduced at the end of the 16th century, but poor and gloomy materials were used. During the period of the full baroque, the baroque art progressed and was filled with ornaments eliminating the Herrerian elements.

Sculpture

Full of decorations with great movement and dynamism , his images showed violent and exalted passions. He introduced different religious and moral contents that changed the way of expressing himself. Religious themes predominated, they made realism one of their main characteristics, and they created meticulously dressed images. The main client of Baroque sculpture was the Catholic Church and later the court . Made mainly of polychrome wood, their works are used in the steps of Holy Week .

Painting

It was characterized by its figures full of chiaroscuro and expression . They used oil paint as it gave them greater brightness and variations in color, viscosity and qualities. The canvas was the favorite material of the Baroque painters and the linear and symmetrical trend was lost, as the artists used more freedom in their colors and movements. They painted subjects such as landscapes, still life and men, depending on the criteria of each artistic trend.

Representatives of baroque art

  • Diego de Velázquez, who was one of the most important representatives in the world.Baroque art What is it, characteristics, origin, history, importance, works
  • Caravagio, Italian painter considered the first Baroque exponent.
  • Pedro Pablo Rubens, painter of the Flemish school.
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini, outstanding in sculpture, architecture and painting.
  • José de Ribera, Spanish painter and printmaker.
  • Francisco de Zurbarán, religious and mystical painter.
  • Rembrandt , master of all times, outstanding in painting and engraving.
  • Artemisis Gentileschi, outstanding painter among all men.

Examples of outstanding works

Some of the main works of Baroque art are:

  • Saint Peter of the Vatican
  • Palace of Versailles
  • Santa Capilla, Basilica del Pilar
  • Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
  • Fountain of the four rivers
  • Reclining Christ
  • The three graces
  • The night watch

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