The philosophy is a very broad field that is responsible for studying all those questions related to existence , with ethics , the beauty , aesthetics and language among others. As a discipline, it also covers a large field of study and this is done through its different branches. One of these branches is known by the name of axiology , in charge of studying everything related to the nature , values and judgments of an individual.
What is axiology?
The axiología is one of the branches of major importance in philosophy and is in charge of studying the value judgments and values itself that can be performed by humans, passing this way to be one of the foundations of the ethics .
- What do you study
- Characteristics of axiology
- Elements of axiology
- Branches of axiology
- How it differs from ethics
- Examples of axiology
The axiology is a theory that is responsible for studying and carrying out analyzes related values of the human being. Study their nature and the judgments that can be developed from them. It is important to remember that values are a type of principle that is used to establish a judgment and for this reason, axiology is closely related to ethics .
What do you study
Its objective is the study of the values of man and of all those value judgments that can be made by an individual focusing mainly on the subjectivity and objectivity that values can have.
Characteristics of axiology
Among its main features are the following:
- It is based on both positive and negative type values .
- It is an important part of ethics and aesthetics .
- The values you study can also be subjective or objective .
- It has a hierarchy where some values will have a position of greater and lesser importance.
- It considers that values can change depending on the needs and experiences that people have experienced.
- It establishes that values can have negative and positive relationships between themselves.
The origin of axiology dates back to the 19th century in Germany , however, it was in the 20th century, thanks to Paul Lapie , that it took on greater force. Many experts consider that it was the ancient Greeks who began to give a more philosophical reflection to the problems of value and that they were also the ones who began to give greater interest to the existence of values and their analysis from the philosophical point of view.
The history of the term dates back to Hume , an important philosopher who attached great importance to moral and aesthetic values. It was Hume who developed a theory that was responsible for defining values as the true principles of morals and aesthetics . The first time the term was used to refer to values was in 1902 by Paul Lapie and years later in 1908 , in, it also took on importance thanks to Eduard von Hartman .
Throughout its history, important theories and notions have emerged regarding the subject and many philosophers were in charge of defining moral values as well as creating theories about it. With the passage of time, it became more important and then became an important part of ethics .
Socrates , an important philosopher who founded the philosophy of morality and who had a great influence on other philosophers, is considered as the father and founder of axiology , making the term take on great importance in humanist philosophical knowledge.
Elements of axiology
The elements of axiology are mentioned below:
- Act or experience : it is the moment in which an individual realizes the existence of things.
- Judgments of existence : the characteristics and properties of an object are observed.
- Evaluative experience : it is the moment in which the individual decides to be for or against the object.
- Value judgments : it is the manifestation of acceptance or rejection of the object.
- Subject : the person who is related to the object under study.
- Affectivity : refers to the feelings that the individual can develop towards the object.
- Active : are all the needs, interests or motives that help the subject to value the object.
- Object : it is all kinds of thing, individual or animal, concrete situations, ideas and all kinds of abstract object.
Values are the fundamental part of axiology and can be defined as those principles , qualities or virtues that can characterize an individual, an action or an object. They are all the characteristics that a human being has that help him act in a certain way and that are part of his beliefs, thus determining the behavior , interests and feelings of individuals.
Branches of axiology
Axiology has two important branches:
- Ethics : it is the science that studies moral behavior by carrying out different analyzes that establish the way in which individuals should behave in life. It is the capacity of the human being to be able to determine if something or situation is morally correct or not .
- Aesthetics : it is a discipline that is responsible for studying beauty and the way it is perceived by human beings. It is a science that analyzes everything that is considered beautiful, mainly from an artistic point of view .
Axiology in education
Educational axiology as an educational discipline has several topics that are related to philosophy and the educational process . He postulates in his theory that values , although they can be chosen by the human being, can also be taught in different ways. It also refers to the fact that values are at the same time motives and criteria related to the way of behaving of the human being and that they are also fixed and immutable .
It also has important issues that are also related to philosophy , including educational assets that must be analyzed at a scientific and philosophical level, educational purposes and educational values as the core of educational axiology.
Axiology of law
It is in charge of doing studies related to legal values , with the way in which values can come to form a model of law, focusing mainly on justice . It is also related to social order and positive law . In this case, justice is seen as an end.
It includes a series of values and norms that help the individual to make value judgments so that in this way they can correctly distinguish between good and evil, between actions that are considered good or bad.
It gives importance to the work of a democratic political system in terms of the formulation and development of a system focused on values that seeks at all times the well-being of the people, following all democratic principles in order to guarantee the purposes of freedom , equality , free participation and social justice .
It is responsible for establishing all those principles and purposes that must be included in the training of citizens . It is found within the Constitution of a country and it clearly states that values are fundamental within the process of educating people.
Axiology of art
Study the values that things have, focusing on the fundamentals and the essence and how these can become related to the individual. It also focuses on the artistic foundations that can cause different types of value judgments in the human being.
How it differs from ethics
The most important difference between the two terms is based on the fact that axiology focuses on the study of different values and ethics gives greater importance to the principles of morality of a human being. Ethics is in charge of analyzing what is right and wrong, the different virtues, vices and above all the evil and good. Axiology, on the other hand, is more focused on the study of human values, aesthetics and ethics itself.
Axiology is a philosophy very important because through it you can get to make reflections deeper with respect to different values and prejudices with the main objective to improve and give a guide to man that can cope adequately in society . In fields such as psychology and sociology , axiology is vital because it takes into account all personal and societal values to be able to adequately study human behavior and the values that it possesses as part of its being.
Among its main representatives we mention the following:
- Paul lapie
- Eduard von Hartmann
- Heinrich Rickert
- Max scheler
Examples of axiology
Some examples of axiology are mentioned below:
- The political proposals of a candidate that will be analyzed and evaluated from the point of view of the voter.
- For a person who loves exercise, steroids can represent an aesthetic value beyond the real value that can be closely linked to vanity.
- Questions related to heaven and hell.