The avantgarde was one of the artistic movements most important in history , reaching the present time with the same relevance and the avantgarde never gets old, especially when there are still many things in which to innovate.


What is the avant-garde?

Avant-garde is called the set of artistic currents and movements , which could also be literary, which arises from a highly problematic and chaotic time , also recognized as avant-garde in the French language. Generally, this trend begins since society was tired of the trends that were manifesting at the time, so in this way people, works, or some other type of social artistic manifestation that were outside the norm were called For the time they were not everyday and they were discriminated as innovative, particular and peculiar ; These called more the attention of the citizens if they were related to theculture , politics, philosophy or literature .


The avant-garde was catapulted in a great way since its appearance, since as if it were a utopia it represented everything impossible for the time and although for some it was a simple characteristic that was attached to modernism and postmodernism, many artists aligned themselves with that current , specifying that it was extremely far from the foundations and foundations of the previous ones.


What does it consist of

It is defined as that art or expression that is manifested through strange or unusual means, which are not everyday for society and which, therefore, are outside the norm, being totally innovative in the eyes of the spectators, therefore Therefore, it could be said that avant-garde is everything new that becomes a trend, by the simple fact of being inexperienced in some cases.

Where it appeared

It arose mainly in Europe .

Historic context

Everything was unleashed in the time of the 1900s , with the arrival of the First World War and the Soviet Revolution in Europe , some events began to occur that were triggers for what is avant-garde, which began as a simple innovative political movement that He tried to give hope to the citizens who were overwhelmed by the events that were taking place.

In 1920 , other events charged the population more, causing the appeased avant-garde to resurface around the time of the Second World War, this time, to remain not only as a trend, but as a current that would transform not only the perceptions of the spectators. , but also culture and some customs , later spreading around the world, in various regions and nations.


Avant-garde is extremely easy to discriminate, however, some of its most outstanding characteristics will be expressed below:

  • It originated primarily in Europe , in the course of the 1900s , during what were World War I, the Soviet Revolution, and World War II.
  • Mix of political and cultural ideologies.
  • Current, trend and political, artistic, cultural and literary movement.
  • It brings to society new ways of perceiving reality, space.
  • It was born thanks to a reality that was changing radically.
  • New ways of understanding the human being and reality.
  • Innovation and new ideals.
  • Experimentation.
  • Fight against the traditions and customs of yesteryear.
  • Freedom of form.
  • Remoteness from the panoramas and statuses of the norm.
  • It developed through various manifestations, such as sculpture, painting, and architecture.


Its main objective is to leave behind everything that for society is obsolete , to open up new perceptions of what reality is, the way of seeing the world and the events that take place, to have a new life, from a new perspective; innovation and novelties are the epicenter of this current and artistic movement.

Expressions and isms

Avant-garde from its origins manifested itself in various ways, however, its expressions are as follows:

  • Impressionism.
  • Expressionism.
  • The Fauves .
  • The Cubism .
  • Futurism.
  • Dadaism.
  • Ultraism.
  • The surrealism.
  • Stridentism.
  • Arieldentism.

Hand in hand with the various manifestations that it had, of which the most outstanding were the following:

  • Sculpture.
  • Painting.
  • Architecture.
  • Literature.
  • Topics

Some of the most relevant themes of the avant-garde are the following:

  • Politics.
  • Economy.
  • Culture.
  • Traditions.
  • Relevant events in society for the moment.
  • Pessimistic view of the world.
  • Apocalyptic tone.

Literary avant-garde

The literary avant-garde developed with impetus, reaching and spreading to various parts of the world, talking about everything that was known since ancient times but in a renewed way, thus changing the perception of readers in everything related to the traditions that previously were manifested, the romance, politics and culture from then on would be transformed and changed.

Vanguardism by country

  • Spain : In this country the avant-garde manifested itself mainly in literature.
  • France : This is considered the cradle of avant-garde, which is why it expanded from this country to the rest.
  • In Switzerland and the United States: It arises thanks to Dadaism.
  • Germany: It arises thanks to the various artistic movements and develops as an artistic current.
  • Italy: It arose based on Futurism.


  • YokoOno.
  • FernandLéger.
  • Marta Minujín.
  • Eva Aeppli.
  • Taro Okamoto.
  • Elsa Von Freytag-Loringhoven.
  • Beatrice Wood.
  • MarjorieStrider.
  • MaudeKerns.
  • LajosVajda.



  • Oscar – Claude Monet. “Impression, rising sun” (1874) Impressionist.
  • Henry Matisse. “The dance” Fauvista.
  • Eduardo Munch. “The Scream”. Expressionist.
  • Paul Cézanne. “Basket of Apples” 1895.


  • Edgar Degas: “Little fourteen-year-old dancer” 1881.
  • AgusteRodin. “The Bronze Age” 1877.
  • Paul Gauguin. “Jar in the shape of a head” 1889.
  • Pablo Picasso: “Head of a woman” 1909.

European literature

  • Marcel Proust. “In Search of Lost Time”. He composed this work throughout his life and published it between 1913 and 1927, in short installments.
  • Albert Camus. His themes are the absurd and reasons to live. “The foreigner” 1942.
  • Samuel Becket. Poet, novelist and playwright. It identifies with the absurd genre. “Malone Dies” 1951.

Latin American pictorial avant-garde

  • Diego Rivera. Mexico . “Flower Festival.” 1925.
  • Roberto Matta. Chile . Surreal. “Night invasion” 1941.
  • Xul Solar. Argentina. “RuaRuini” 1949.

Latin American literary vanguard

  • Cesar Vallejo. Peru. Modernist. “Wild Fable” Qualified as a “psychological novel”. 1923.
  • Vicente Huidobro. Chili. Creationist. “The cave of silence.”
  • Jorge Luis Borges. Argentina. Ultraist. “The man in the pink corner.” 1927.


It could be said that this was and is an extremely relevant artistic trend for those who are society, since a radical change is always needed to enliven hope in the community as a whole; innovation and novelties ignite that spark that due to realities is appeased.


It can then be concluded that avant-garde is an extremely important artistic trend for society and its development , since without these innovative manifestations, society for those times of war needed something that would make them gradually forget traditions and old customs, impacting with extreme force on their structures and knocking them down.

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