Aorta artery


The aorta artery is the largest artery in the human body. It begins at the top of the left ventricle , which is the heart’s muscular pumping chamber. The heart pumps blood from the left ventricle into the aorta through the heartbeat to allow blood to flow in only one direction. The aorta emits a series of different branches that go to the head and neck , the arms , the major organs in the chest and abdomen , and the legs . It serves to give everyone oxygenated blood. This artery is the central tube that runs from the heart to the rest of the body.


What is the aorta artery?

The aorta is the main artery in our body and is in charge of giving rise to all the other arteries that make up the circulatory system , with the exception of the pulmonary ones. It carries and distributes oxygenated blood throughout the body.

  • Characteristics of the aorta artery
  • Function
  • Location
  • Parties
  • Ascending aorta artery
  • Descending aortic artery
  • Thoracic aorta artery
  • Abdominal aorta artery
  • Obstructed aortic artery

Characteristics of the aorta artery

The main characteristics of the aorta are as follows:

  • It is a very elastic artery .
  • It is flexible and has the ability to extend .
  • It is born in the upper portion of the left ventricle .
  • It expands when the left ventricle contracts during systole.
  • Anatomically, the aorta artery divides into the ascending aorta , the aortic arch, and the descending aorta .
  • It is the largest blood vessel in our body.
  • It is shaped like a crook .


Its function is to distribute oxygenated blood from the heart through its different branches to the tissues and organs of the human body, with the exception of the lungs. The aorta supplies blood to the heart, its branches to the head , neck and arms and the descending aorta torá cycad supplies oxygenated blood to the thorax and abdomen.


It is born in the left ventricle of the heart forming an arch known as the aortic arch . It descends to the abdomen where it is divided into two different arteries, the common iliac, which are responsible for supplying the pelvis and the lower limb, and the middle sacral artery , which is responsible for supplying part of the rectum.


It is divided into three different main parts: the aortic arch, the ascending aorta, and the descending aorta. The latter, in turn, is divided into thoracic and abdominal aorta.

Ascending aorta artery

The ascending aorta originates in the aortic valve of the left ventricle of the heart and ends in the aortic arch . It is the first portion of the aorta and the left and right coronary arteries originate from it . It has a dilation at its point of origin known as the bulb of the aorta . On its anterior face and in its middle third it has an important structure of connective and adipose tissue that surrounds and protects it, called praeputium aortae . It presents a series of aortic sinuses in which the coronary arteries originate.

Descending aortic artery

It is the main portion of the aorta artery, formed by the thoracic and abdominal aorta . It continues its passage through the aortic arch , which supplies various organs. It begins in the left part of the fourth dorsal vertebral body and ends in the fourth lumbar vertebral body , and from this place, it continues with the name of the right and left common iliac arteries . It is divided into two parts: the thoracic portion and the abdominal portion .

Thoracic aorta artery

This artery is the continuation of the aortic arch and measures between 17 and 20 centimeters in length, its caliber is quite large and it is of considerable length. It begins at the lower border of T4 and then moves down the mediastinum until it reaches the diaphragm . It is surrounded by the thoracic plexus . The thoracic aorta is closely related to the left mediastinal elements such as the left pulmonary pedicle, left mediastinal pleura, esophagus, thoracic duct, intercostal vessels, hemiazygous vein, left sympathetic chain, and left sympathetic ganglia. Among its branches we can mention the following: spinal branch or radicular arterycutaneous branch, muscular branch , intercostal arteries , pericardial branches, mediastine and visceral branches .

Abdominal aorta artery

It is the most distal part of the aorta and begins in the diaphragm next to the twelfth thoracic vertebra, and ends in the common iliac arteries. The type of route it makes is medial and it runs between the vertebral bodies. It has posterior and inferior branches , among them we can mention:

  •  The celiac artery or celiac trunk that is divided into:
    • Left gastric artery
    • Splenic artery
    • Common hepatic artery
  • The superior mesenteric artery that is divided into:
    • Right upper and lower colic artery
    • Ileal arteries
    • Jejunal arteries
    • Inferior pancreatic-duodenal arteries
    • Middle colic artery
    • Ileus colic artery
  • The renal arteries
  • The middle capsular arteries that supply the adrenal glands .
  • The gonadal arteries
  • The inferior mesenteric artery , which is divided into:
    • Left colic artery
    • Sigmoid arteries
    • Superior rectal artery

Obstructed aortic artery

Aortic artery obstruction is known as aortic stenosis and is due to an abnormality of the valve and is one of the most common defects. This type of obstruction can cause chest pain and a feeling of loss of consciousness . Most symptoms occur during adolescence . Sometimes too much calcium in the blood can be a trigger. The way to diagnose the problem is through an electrocardiogram and X-rays, which demonstrate the widening of the aorta. Depending on the severity of the problem, the treatment will be carried out, many times surgery is the main option to repair the valve. A valve replacement is common in children and teens.

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