In the history of Spain, many important men have come to occupy the throne, one of them Alfonso XIII, one of the most controversial kings of Spain who reigned during the first decades of the 20th century. During the First World War it was he who was in charge of establishing an office for humanitarian aid for prisoners and civilians within the Royal Palace of Madrid.
- When was he born: 05/17/1886
- Where he was born: Madrid, Spain
- When he died: 02/28/1941
- Where he died: Rome, Italy
Who was Alfonso XIII?
Alfonso XIII was a king of Spain who came to rule as a child so his mother, María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena , took charge of taking the reins and educating him militarily. His kingdom began when he came of age in 1902 when the country suffered the effects of defeat against the United States .
- What did Alfonso XIII do
- Biography of Alfonso XIII
- Reign of Alfonso XIII
- Physical characteristics
- Which dynasty did he belong to
- Importance of Alfonso XIII
- Presence in popular culture
What did Alfonso XIII do
During his reign, Alfonso XIII was in charge of promoting the return to democratic normality in order to regenerate the regime again and for this, he decided to intervene in the different political affairs of the country. He faced different wars such as that of Morocco, that of the labor movement and that of nationalism . Thanks to the neutrality that he managed to achieve in Spain during World War I, he managed to open several markets, improving the country’s economic growth and reducing agitation at the same time.of society .
Biography of Alfonso XIII
Alfonso XIII was born in the Royal Palace of Madrid and was proclaimed as king the same day he was born. After his birth, he received his baptism in the palace chapel through the Archbishop of Compostela, Cardinal Payá. His mother reigned as regent while he came of age. Regarding his education , it was in charge of Don José Fernández Montaña who taught him everything related to religion, with Arrilaga he learned science, with Captain Ruiz Fornells he received military education and with Brieva , history.
Alfonso XIII decided to abandon the Spanish elections in 1931 and died in the city of Rome and was later buried on February 28, 1941 . Later, his remains were taken to the Pantheon of the Kings , located in the Monastery of El Escorial in Madrid in 1980.
Reign of Alfonso XIII
When he was sixteen years old, Alfonso XIII was declared of legal age and with this, his reign began . During his government, he had to face many problems and focused on trying to regenerate the country to be able to take it out of the crisis that had caused the social problem , the radicalism on the part of the workers’ organizations, the wars , the great failure of the political turnismo and the new birth of groups that supported Basque and Catalan nationalism .
He made Spain remain neutral while World War I lasted and thanks to this, he was able to make it possible for different markets to open to the country favoring a good development in the field of economics and even managed to make society enter a relative period of calm down . He accepted the military coup that had been produced by Miguel Primo de Rivera because he saw it as a solution for the crisis that had occurred in 1917 due to the union of military unionism , Catalan nationalism and strikes revolutionary type.
He fought to maintain good constitutional order after Primo de Rivera failed, however, the more traditional parties were resentful as were the Republicans , Regionalists and Socialists . On April 13, 1931 , the elections gave the victory to the socialist and republican parties, so the king decided to leave the country. He lived in exile for a total of ten years.
He was a tall man with a slim build . I used to use mustache , his ears were a little big, his pointed nose and big and his lank hair and colored black , with entrances on his forehead.
He was a man who had quite a controversial personality . He liked to be unfaithful and always cheated when he gambled. He was also known for his reckless bravery , a man who had suffered numerous assassination attempts against him but still stood firm in his convictions .
His father was Alfonso XII who had already died at the time of his birth and his mother María Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena.
Alfonso XIII married on May 31 of the year 1906 with Victoria Eugenia Julia who was the daughter of Prince Henry of Battenberg.
Alfonso , Jaime , Beatriz Isabel , María Cristina, Teresa , Juan and finally Gonzalo were born from his first marriage . Together with the actress named Carmen Ruiz Moragas, he had a child out of wedlock who was also recognized by the king. Outside of marriage he also had the following children: Roger Leveque de Vilmorin , Leandro Alfonso Ruiz , María Teresa Ruiz Moragas.
Alfonso XIII had married Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg who suffered from a serious blood disease called hemophilia . His son, Don Juan, due to this reason could not get to occupy the throne of Spain, first because of his suffering and second because of the Civil War and the military dictatorship of General Francisco Franco , who also placed at the head of state, as successor to Don Juan Carlos de Borbón .
Which dynasty did he belong to
Alfonso XIII was the ninth of the Bourbon dynasty .
Importance of Alfonso XIII
Despite the fact that his reign can be considered a failure in the field of politics, the reign of Alfonso XIII was part of an important historical period in which a recovery was achieved in the country in various fields, economic , historical , scientific , intellectual and even in the artistic field . Thanks to his government, journalism managed to flourish and large cities were developed. The number of people without formal education decreased which also made it possible for living standards to improve. With all these actions, he undoubtedly managed to maintain a neutralityin the country while the war in Europe lasted and with it, he strengthened the country’s finances.
Some of his most recognized phrases are mentioned below:
- I am the king of all Spaniards, and also a Spaniard. I would find more than enough means to maintain my royal prerogatives, in effective struggle with those who fight them.
- I hope that I will not return, because that would only mean that the Spanish people are not prosperous or happy.
- Carlism can be cured by reading a lot and nationalism by traveling more than reading.
- I chose Franco when he was nobody. He has betrayed and deceived me every moment.
- I will end with Europe ending for many in the Pyrenees.
- The revolution is good for those who are historians. All parties serve, all needs also have value, all ideas have a place.
Some of its main curiosities are mentioned below:
- He was also known by the name of ” El Africano “.
- His full name was Alfonso León Fernando María Santiago Isidro Pascual Antón .
- He was very fond of gambling but was always cheating .
- He had a large number of lovers and in fact, several children in extramarital affairs.
- He was the first king to produce Spanish pornographic films .
Presence in popular culture
In popular culture, there are several books that contain valuable information regarding Alfonso XIII, some of them are mentioned below:
- The Bourbons, Alfonso XIII by Carlos Seco Serrano,
- Alfonso XIII, a politician on the throne of Javier Moreno Luzón.
- Alfonso XIII: from Primo de Rivera to Franco by Miguel Plaón .
- Alfonso and Ena, the wedding of the century of Ricardo Mateos Sáinz de Medrano.