Alfonso XII


Alfonso XII made his way to be crowned as king of Spain between 1874 and 1885. Known popularly as The Peacemaker , made his reign ended the First Republic of Spain leading to the well – known period called Restoration . Due to his premature death, he was succeeded by his son Alfonso XIII, but since he was a minor, power was left in the hands of his mother, María Cristina.


Personal information

  • When was he born: 11/28/1857
  • Where he was born: Madrid, Spain
  • When he died: 11/25/1885
  • Where he died: Madrid, Spain

Who was Alfonso XII?

Alfonso XII of Spain, also known by the nickname of the Peacemaker , was the king of the country between the years of 1874 and 1885 , a man who, through his reign, put an end to the First Republic, giving way to the well-known Restoration period .

  • What did Alfonso XII do
  • Biography of Alfonso XII
  • Death
  • Reign of Alfonso XII
  • Physical characteristics
  • Personality
  • Parents
  • Relations
  • Sons
  • Successor
  • Which dynasty did he belong to
  • Importance of Alfonso XII
  • Phrases
  • Curiosities
  • Presence in popular culture

What did Alfonso XII do

Alfonso XII was a king who mainly tried to modernize Spain . Its purpose was to produce a change in the country, to give greater importance to the field of education to all social classes equally, to improve culture , industry , science , arts and letters . The king really wanted to transform the country, increase intellectual and moral progress and consolidate the monarchy and the stability of the institutions.

Biography of Alfonso XII

Alfonso XII was born in Madrid , in the Royal Palace , on November 28, 1857 . He had received the title of Prince of Asturias from the moment he was born and baptized in the palace chapel, his godfather was Pope Pius IX who at the time was represented by the nuncio Lorenzo Barili. Being just a child, his mother, Elizabeth II was dethroned and exiled in Paris , where she studied in different educational and military centers .

He studied at the Stanislas school located in Paris and when the Franco-Prussian war began, the family decided to move to Geneva where he remained a student at the Public Academy of the city . He then entered the Royal and Imperial Teresian Academy in Vienna and was appointed by the Earl of Morphy as a tutor. He finished his studies in 1874 and later, Morphy began to play a very important role in the formation of Alfonso.

He entered the Sandhurst Military Academy located in England and in 1870 , his mother abdicated all his dynastic rights through a document that was signed in Paris, leaving the throne in the hands of her son and becoming the legitimate one. King of Spain.


In 1885 , a major cholera epidemic reached Valencia and little by little it spread throughout the country. The disease also reached Aranjuez and Alfonso XII wanted to visit the sick but the Cánovas government opposed it . Despite this, the king decided to go to the city without warning and ordered that the doors of the Royal Palace of Aranjuez be opened so that the garrison troops could rest.

In that place he dedicated himself to distributing aid and when the government found out what happened they sent for him, however, on November 25 , Alfonso XII died of the disease . In his honor, a monument was made which is located in the Retiro Park in the city of Madrid .

Reign of Alfonso XII

On December 1, 1874 , Alfonso made public the Sandhurst Manifesto , which was presented to the Spanish and where Alfonso was named as a Spanish, Catholic, liberal and constitutional prince. On December 29 of the same year, the restoration of the monarchy occurred when Arsenio Martínez ruled as general in favor of Prince Alfonso. In 1874 , he managed to reach Spain and was then proclaimed king before the Cortes of Spain . Later, he appointed the Earl of Morphy as his personal secretary .

During his government, he fought to improve and consolidate the monarchy as well as the stability of the institutions that were part of the government. He was in charge of improving the damages that had been caused by the Revolutionary Sexenio and with this, he earned the title of Peacemaker . The Constitution of 1876 was approved and the Carlist war ended . La Paz de Zanjón was signed and made several trips to foreign countries.

Physical characteristics

Alfonso XII de Borbón was a thin man , with brown eyes and short hair . His stature was quite short and his health was quite fragile . He was considered by many women as an attractive man , although his stature did not make him appear this way.


He was a man who was characterized by being responsible , very serious , talented , quite intelligent and had a great facility to express himself. He was cultured , kind , kind to those around him and was quite eloquent.


His mother was Queen Elizabeth II of Bourbon and his father was the King consort Francisco de Asís de Borbón.


He married for the first time with María de las Mercedes de Orleans , who was the daughter of the Dukes of Montpensier, on January 23, 1878. Shortly after, she died of tuberculosis and then, just a few months later, he married again with María Cristina from Hadsburgo-Loreana .


In his second marriage he had three children who were:

  • María de las Mercedes , who was the Infanta of Spain and also the Princess of Asturias.
  • María Teresa , who was also the Infanta of Spain.
  • Alfonso XIII , who became King of Spain from the day he was born.


He was succeeded by his son Alfonso XIII. Being a minor, power was in the hands of his mother María Cristina.

Which dynasty did he belong to

Alfonso XII belonged to the Bourbon dynasty, a dynasty that managed to be restored thanks to his figure.

Importance of Alfonso XII

He was a king of great importance for Spain because through him it was possible to consolidate the entire monarchy and with this he also managed to give greater stability to the institutions of the State. In addition, he was in charge of recovering the country and healing the damages that had been caused during the six-year term .


There are no data on famous phrases mentioned by Alfonso XII.


Some of the most important curiosities of Alfonso XII were the following:

  • He was a man very fond of opera and lyric . His favorite artist was Elena Armanda Sanz Martínez de Arizala , with whom he fell deeply in love.
  • Many say that his real father was Enrique Puig Moltó .
  • He was a king whom the people loved very much and that is why they named him as the Peacemaker .

Presence in popular culture

In popular culture it is possible to find the story of Alfonso XII in several films , works of theater and books . One of the most recognized books is known as Alfonso XII and the cursed crown , which even won the 5th Hispania Prize for Historical Novels. In the field of television, the series The Minister of Time was filmed and plays have been made such as Where are you going, Alfonso XII ?

novel known as G , by the author Daniel Sánchez Pardo , tells the story of Alfonso’s arrival in Spain in order to be crowned king. In the cinema , films like Where are you going, Alfonso XII? And where are you going, sad of you? They have been created to tell the story of the king.

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