Since the beginning of civilization , innovation has always been sought in transportation methods so that human beings can move easily. The first known methods of transport were horses in the wild areas , in some cases carriages, donkeys and camels were added in the arid areas , and elephants in the western areas. With the advances of civilization, boats began to be developed to navigate the sea, the use of horses began to decrease due to the arrival of the first motor-powered vehicles. However, the sky was still unexplored as it was considered as something impossible., until the first flight of the plane took place in mid-1903 .
The airplane is the means of transport that can move through the air thanks to its structure similar to that of a bird with open wings and a powerful engine to power it. This is within the aircraft family , and in turn accompanies helicopters, drones and hot air balloons . Which are the only ones that can move through the air until now.
- Definition of airplane
- What is it for
- Characteristics of the plane
- Who invented the airplane
- How does it work
- Airplane maintenance
Definition of airplane
The airplane is a vehicle that also bears other names such as airplane , it refers to wing aerodynamic, that is, a vehicle that has a totally fixed wing , with a higher density than that of air and also has a space for cargo and the ability to plan or be driven by one or more engines.
The term comes from the French airplane but its term has roots from the Latin word Avis which translates as Ave. In order for them to carry out their work, they have 3 main parts: the wings, the engine and a landing gear.
What is it for
Currently, airplanes work in several important areas:
- The transportation of a person either over short ( national ), medium (within the same continent ) or long ( intercontinental ) distances . They can be civilians, military, rulers.
- As well as transporting people, it also does it with loads and also transport of animals .
- In the military area, it allows reconnaissance of enemy terrain , landing of troops from the air and bombing missions.
- In the safeguard area it is used in maritime rescues (shipwrecks)
- At present they are used in various aerial competitions .
- Some have loading gondolas for water, with which they fight forest fires.
Characteristics of the plane
The main characteristics of an airplane are:
- All airplanes have wings and a landing gear.
- Airlines compete to be equipped with the best aircraft
- The Russian company Antonov developed the aircraft with the most cargo capacity to date.
- Not all airports are capable of receiving medium and long-haul aircraft.
- The luxury jets with eccentric concepts (gold plated or with extravagant internal designs) that little by little is becoming a culture among billionaires.
- France is considered to be the cradle of aviation since some of the first prototypes were flown in that country and the first clubs were founded.
Although airplanes are now quite well known, however, a long time ago flying was something totally impossible , it is even considered to be a myth. The history dates back many attempts to get it man, whom we shall see below in chronological order:
- Although there is nothing sustainable, man’s first attempt was in Greece with the helmet of Icarus.
- Some plans of a kind of glider with the signature of Leonardo Da Vinci are discovered for the 15th century , but there is no data on flight tests.
- The first man-made flight was carried out in 1783 by Francois de Rozier and the Marquis de Arlandes in a hot air balloon developed by the Montgolfier brothers , this being a great advance for history as it was the first powered vehicle.
- For the date of August 28, 1883 when John Montgomery is the one who makes a first flight with a glider.
- The first man who lays the foundations of thermodynamics and s Sir George Cayley , who had already produced different types of gliders even with people carrying capacity, although this was still not an airplane engine as needed.
- The first airplane that fulfills the concepts is created in the middle of 1890 by Clement Ader , who creates several prototypes of airplanes and manages to make them fly.
- It is for December 17, 1903 that the first sustained flight of an aerodynamic powered by an engine takes place which flew over a distance of 36.5 meters by the Wright brothers who are attributed part of their fame. It was catapulted to be able to fly so it was not attributed the ability to take off by itself.
- The first man to fly on an aerodynamic is the Brazilian Santos Dumont , who was recognized by the Aero Club de France as a record up to that point in history. This flight takes place in mid-1906.
- During 1911 the first seaplane was created by the American Glen Curtis.
- The first model with a wooden propeller was created by Guillermo Villasana in 1912.
- The first four-engine dubbed ” Le Grand ” was created in 1913 by the Russian Igor Sikorski.
- By the First World War, military engineers began to understand the limitations of propeller-powered airplanes, which is why the first models of engines powered by centrifugal compression turbines began to be developed , being Frank Whittle who patented it for 1930 .
Who invented the airplane
Not all the merit can be attributed to a single person, as they were continuously developed based on past models. Those who contributed the most were:
- Leonardo da Vinci.
- John Montgomery.
- Sir George Cayley.
- Clement Ader.
- The Wright brothers.
The different types of aircraft are:
- Of subsonic flight. (First combat aircraft, and sports flight)
- High speed supersonic flight. (fighter planes)
- Subsonic flight with a large capacity nacelle. (They are mostly used for heavy loads)
- Supersonic flight with improved maneuverability (fighter jets)
- Hydropropulsion. (planes with commercial routes)
- Hypersonic flight (reconnaissance aircraft)
The parts of an airplane are the following:
- Airfoil (wings)
- Control surfaces and stabilizers:
- Horizontal and vertical stabilizers
- Component actuation control.
- Group of moto-propellants.
- Compendium of navigation equipment and control instruments.
- Metal alloys.
- Stainless steel.
- The internal parts of ABS plastic.
How does it work
The operation of an airplane is simple, the airplanes receive the frontal air through their groups of engines which condense the air and remove the negative effect (resistance and thrust) and inverting it, allowing the airplane to receive an impulse from it. Already in the air the wings and stabilizers have almost all the work since they are what allow them to glide.
The maintenance of the aircraft are performed in depth:
- Flight instruments are calibrated.
- The fuselage is checked to avoid shorts
- Insulating materials are checked to avoid depressurization.
- The gasoline tanks are checked so that they do not present canisters, and also the gasoline injectors so that they do not inject more gasoline than they should.
- The condition of the engines and their correct operation are checked.
- Adjusts the entire landing gear in terms of hydraulics and suspension.
Some examples of airplanes are:
- Douglas DC-3.
- Bell X-1.
- Lockheed SR-71.
- Antonov An-225.
- Warkhowg bomber.
- Cessna 172.
- Boeing 737.
- Concorde supersonic plane.
- Airbus A380 .
- Hercules H4.
- Mikoyan MiG-29.