Agustín de Iturbide


Agustín de Iturbide was a military leader of Mexican origin who was the leader of the conservative factions in the Mexican independence movement and held a position as emperor of Mexico. Iturbide began his career as a royalist army officer . He remained loyal to the Spanish cause and vowed to serve it rather than join his cousin, who was participating in the insurgent army of Costilla. His excellent participation and defense of Valladolid against the revolutionary forces was the aspect that led him to take command of the military district of Guanajuato and Michoacán.. Iturbide’s most important contribution came with the Plan of Iguala which was published on February 24, 1821.


Personal information

  • When was he born:  09/27/1783
  • Where he was born:  Valladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain
  • When he died:  07/19/1824
  • Where he died:  Padilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Who was Agustín de Iturbide?

Agustín de Iturbide was a Mexican military leader who acted as the leader of the conservative fractions of the Mexican independence movement, later occupying the post of Emperor Agustín in 1822 and 1823.

  • Biography of Agustín de Iturbide
  • Characteristics of his government
  • Ideology of Agustín de Iturbide
  • The Empire of Agustín de Iturbide
  • Coronation and reign
  • Overthrow
  • Death
  • Contributions of Agustín de Iturbide
  • Phrases

Biography of Agustín de Iturbide

His birth name was Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Aramburu and he was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid, Michoacán . As a young man he enrolled in the royalist army where he was promoted to second lieutenant in the provincial regiment, and in 1806, he became a lieutenant . During the outbreak of the War of Independence in 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla offered him a position with his revolutionary army, but he did not want to accept it and followed the Spanish cause. He fought against General José María Morelos from 1810 to 1816 in Valladolid. His victory earned him the position of captain.

From 1813 to 1815, he became the main military opponent of Morelos, being in charge mainly of the military district of Guanajuato and Michoacán . This persecution ended in 1815 when he captured and successfully executed Morelos

In the 1820s, the Mexican independence movement faced a revolution . Conservatives advocated immediate independence that led Iturbide to assume a dominant role in the army, allying his force with the radical insurgents of Guerrero.

Characteristics of his government

  • It became a feared name for the Insurgents.
  • His government was short – lived and poorly managed.
  • It arose after a series of revolutionary movements against Spain .
  • It only lasted two years.
  • It was recognized as the first Mexican Empire free from the control of the Spanish Crown.
  • It had a good territorial organization .
  • He had strong opposition from Republicans.
  • He dissolved the congress and created a chamber of deputies .
  • His bad policies created a nationwide economic crisis .

Ideology of Agustín de Iturbide

For Agustín de Iturbide, the people of Mexico needed control and dominance because for him, they did not have the capacity to govern themselves. He believed that the army should maintain the privileges of the Creole castes and affirmed that the only king was Fernando VII .

The Empire of Agustín de Iturbide

His first reign became known as the first Mexican Empire and he was called Agustín I of Mexico , thus becoming emperor of the country, from 1821 to 1823. During this period, Mexico managed to expand reaching the Isthmus of Panama and up to Oregon to the north. His empire was dissolved by the Casemate plan , which brought about a revolution in which Congress was required to rule again.

Coronation and reign

His coronation occurred with the first Mexican Empire. It happened on July 21, 1822 in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City, it was an unprecedented ceremony, although simple and of a constitutional nature.


By December 1822, Iturbide’s opposition strengthened under Santa Anna, who proposed the Plan of Veracruz , which called for the restitution of the old Constituent Congress . In 1816, Agustín de Iturbide faced a series of charges against extortion and violence which led to his removal from the royalist forces. They reproached him for being cruel to civilians and for his arbitrariness. In addition, he was accused of accumulating large commercial properties and embezzling military funds . With the return of Congress, his empire was annulled by means of a coup . After this, the independence of Mexico occurred and Iturbide was accused of traitor by Congress and his empire was dissolved.


Agustín de Iturbide had moved to Europe and his followers convinced him to return. When he disembarked on July 14, 1824 in Tamaulipas, he was arrested and sentenced to death . His execution was carried out on July 19, 1824 in a small town called Padilla .

Contributions of Agustín de Iturbide

He proclaimed the Iguala plan , which was based on three main aspects: immediate independence from Spain , equality for Spaniards and Creoles , and the supremacy of Roman Catholicism and the prohibition of all other religions. He obtained the adhesion of the royalist and insurgent troops and signed a document that recognized the independence of Mexico. He managed to defeat José María Morelos and established a solid base of territory for Mexico.


  • The division in the towns is the precise cause of their desolation.
  • I decided to make my country independent, because this was the general vote of the Americans; a vote founded on a natural sentiment and on the principles of justice, and a vote that was considered and was the only means for both nations to prosper.
  • The passions and opinions of men cannot change the nature of events, much less undo them. The passage of time dampens the passions and accredits or vanishes opinions, depending on whether they have been in agreement or contrary to the truth.
  • If I am not worthy of you, even existence will be hateful to me
  • I made it a point to remove all suspicions about feelings of ambition that I never had.

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