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Abyssal zone

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The abyssal zone is the part of the ocean which is located more than 2,000 meters of depth in the sea. The area is defined mainly by its different environmental conditions, which are very uniform, a characteristic that is reflected in the different forms of life that inhabit it. Nether kingdom is the greatest environment for life on Earth, covering approximately 300,000,000 square kilometers, about the 60 per cent of the total area and 83 percent of the area of oceans and seas. The abyssal waters originate at the air-sea interface in the polar regions , mainly in Antarctica. In these waters you can find concentrations of salts and nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and silica, and they are very uniform, they are even much higher than in the overlying waters. This is because the abyssal waters are the reservoir for the salts of decomposed biological materials that settle down from the upper areas, and the lack of sunlight prevents their absorption through photosynthesis .

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What is an abyssal zone?

Also known as the abyssopelagic zone, it is one of the different levels in which the ocean is divided , it is an area in which sunlight cannot penetrate, full of very varied and different fauna .

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  • Characteristics of the abyssal zone
  • Fauna of the abyssal zone
  • Netherland Flora

Characteristics of the abyssal zone

  • The oxygen content in abyssal water depends entirely on the amounts found in its polar site of origin and the absence of the photosynthesis process , which prevents the introduction of new oxygen at depth.
  • Abyssal waters retain several cubic centimeters of dissolved oxygen per liter, because dispersed animal populations do not consume oxygen faster than it is introduced into the abyssal zone.
  • Abyssal life is concentrated on the seafloor , however, and the water closest to the floor may be essentially depleted of oxygen. The abyssal zone is a very calm place , and it stays away from the storms that affect the oceans.
  • They are generally found far enough from the ground that the sediment is predominantly made up of microscopic remains of plankton produced in the food chain in the overlying waters , from where they settle.
  • The abyssal sediment in waters below 4,000 m in equatorial regions is formed mainly from the calcareous shells of foraminiferous zooplankton and phytoplankton , known as coccolithophores.
  • Below 4,000 m, calcium carbonate tends to dissolve, and the main constituents of the sediment are brown clays and the siliceous remains of radiolarian zooplankton and phytoplankton such as diatoms .
  • The abyssal zone is located between 3,000 and 6,000 meters deep, below the area known as the bathypelagic and hadopelagic zone .
  • The temperature of the abyssal zone is very cold and has a pressure hydrostatic quite high. It has a great shortage of nutrients and does not have any type of natural light.
  • Underwater accidents such as mountains, mountain ranges, plateaus and islands of volcanic origin can occur .

Fauna of the abyssal zone

The fish that inhabit the abyssal zone are known by the name of abyssal fish . These animals tend to be gray or black in color , they are not very structured and without lines. The mobile forms have long legs ; and bottom-tied animals have stalks , allowing them to rise above the water layer closest to the bottom, where oxygen is in short supply. The crustaceans and abyssal fish can be blind . With increasing depth, carnivores and scavengers become less abundant than animals that feed on mud and matter in suspension. Abyssal animals are believed to reproduce very slowly. Certainly the animals that inhabit this area are very strange and have a monstrous appearance . Most are also bioluminescent , which helps them attract prey and avoid some dangers. You can also find the abyssal gigantism , which includes animals as large as sea spiders that measure more than 1.50 meters. Among the species that we can find are: the giant squid that can measure between 17 and 19 meters long, the dragon fish, balloon fish, crystal squid, dumbo octopus, anoplogaster brachycera, soccpharynx, melanocetus johnsonii and ax fish .

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Netherland Flora

The flora that inhabits the abyssal zone mainly feeds on debris that falls to the bottom of the sea from the surface. As sunlight cannot reach the plants, they are not able to carry out the photosynthesis process , so there are no green algae . In some of the places where hydrothermal vents occur, which depend on the energy of volcanoes, chemosynthesis takes place, which develops some bacterial species.

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